Depression in children and adolescents: what you need to know

Posted on April 13, 2019  in Uncategorized

Depression in children and adolescents is not a banal manifestation of a bad mood. Also, as in the adult world,   depression   – This is a disease from the group of serious emotional disorders that affects all aspects of a child’s life: health, development, quality of life. Depression is diagnosed in every 50th child and in every 20th adolescent, and many children go through this condition without diagnosis and treatment, which leads to serious deviations, and sometimes to suicides. We shall show RASSC on the causes, types and signs of the disease in childhood and school age.

Causes of Depression

Symptoms of depressive disorders in childhood vary considerably with the manifestations of the disease in adults. Due to this factor, as well as due to an insufficient level of attention to “children’s emotions”, the disease is often not noticed in time, and sometimes it goes undiagnosed and without any therapy.

The causes of depression, as well as in adults, can be endogenous (due to somatic diseases, pathologies, etc.) and exogenous, caused by emotional stress. In both cases, depression requires treatment, no matter how insignificant the cause of the disease may seem to parents.

Major factors leading to depression:

  • pathologies of prenatal development, prenatal infections of the mother and fetus, a long period of hypoxia, including during childbirth, infant encephalopathy and other diseases affecting brain tissue, endocrine, and immune systems;
  • features of relationships in the parental family, the style of raising a child;
  • school relationships or conflicts in a different microsocial meaningful for children;
  • teenage   age: adolescents are at increased risk of affective mental disorders due to physiological development (hormonal changes), attendant changes in appearance, and the socio-psychological aspects of personality formation;
  • genetic predisposition to endogenous depression means an increased likelihood of developing a disorder with external provocation, diseases. The disease can occur with periods of remission and exacerbations, often manifested in adolescents than in early childhood;
  • pronounced stressful situations: death of loved ones, divorce of parents, relocation, for adolescents – exams, undivided sympathies, elevated emotional, intellectual workloads, etc.

Manifestations of the disease, depending on the age of children

Children differ in the manifestation of depressive disorders due to the peculiarities of the age stage of development of the psyche. From a philistine point of view, children with signs of depression are rather “comfortable” in their upbringing, often submissive and obedient. A typical clinical picture with reduced mood, motor retardation and slow thinking in childhood practically does not occur, such symptoms can be observed only in adolescents and older patients. However, young children suffer from depression, only this disorder manifests itself in disguise, atypical.

The earliest age of onset of exogenous depression is about six months. As a rule, from this point on, separation from the mother or another significant adult becomes the main factor causing the disease. With a pronounced stage of the disease, a rather even, but little-emotional and joyless mood of a child with a sadly submissive facial expression draws upon himself . Children with depression are rather slow compared to their peers, do not pay special attention to new toys, activities, people. Unreasonable whims, manifestations of anxiety, negativism, etc. can be periodically noted.

Up to 7-8 years, the emotional side of symptoms in children is rather weak, and the main signs are the presence of motor and autonomic disorders:

  • appetite distortions, including eating disorders – anorexia, overeating;
  • sleep disorders – from insomnia and nightmares to sleepiness;
  • nocturnal enuresis, signs of encopresis ;
  • slowness, reduced motor activity;
  • frequent complaints of headaches, pain in the abdomen, throat, etc.

All the symptoms characteristic of younger age (disturbance of appetite, sleep, enuresis, anxious and suspicious mood) are also manifested in younger schoolchildren in combination with more pronounced emotional manifestations.   diseases. From 7 to 11-12 years, the symptoms of depression can be expressed in a decrease in interest in hobbies, isolation, lethargy, impaired attention and memory, which leads to difficulties with studies.

Symptoms and types of disorders in adolescents

Adolescents with depression are more pronounced emotional, mental symptoms of the disease, a violation of social ties. Common manifestations that can be seen in patients from 12-14 years old include:

  • loss or marked reduction in the ability to enjoy ( agedonia ), indifference to former interests;
  • increased irritability up to previously unusual aggressiveness, gloomy, low mood;
  • decrease in the level of activity, slowness;
  • disturbances of appetite, taste preferences;
  • reduced academic performance, negative or indifferent attitude to study;
  • introversion as a previously closed symptom of a child;
  • sleep problems;
  • headache, other manifestations of the hypochondria equivalent without a physiological cause of the symptoms;
  • suicidal statements, interests, judgments about their inferiority, guilt, unworthiness, low value : “I’m worse than everyone, I’m no good, I don’t need anyone, why should I live”.

Depression is often preceded by a long period of dysthymia, depression, low mood. Some depressed adolescents have classic signs of disorder; in others, the disease may be atypical, in a disguised form. All options require treatment: a teenager without therapy, especially if parents are in conflict with him due to a decline in performance, inaction, a reluctance to “correct”, may move to a more severe stage of the disease, requiring placement in a hospital because of the risk of suicidal behavior.

It is important to know that a depressive disorder at a given age is often disguised as psychopathic behavior, delinquent behavior: the use of alcohol, drugs, extreme sports and entertainment, associated with a high risk of injury. The teenager is unable to understand what is happening to him, and is trying to get rid of painful experiences with the help of drugs or thrills.

Getting out of depression: what you need to know?

Posted on April 9, 2019  in Uncategorized

Depression is a severe emotional state of a person, during which he loses the ability to enjoy life. Dealing with depressive thoughts alone is difficult and undesirable. Therefore, to do this, it is better to seek professional help from a psychologist or psychotherapist.

This work can be long and difficult, take a lot of time and “pull” out heavy emotions. Going through personal therapy and enlisting the support of a specialist, a person will be able to understand himself and the causes of his problems, begin to feel the vitality and desire for life. You should not try to cope with depression yourself – this can lead to a deterioration of the state of mind and health. You can work on yourself, subject to the passage of individual therapy from a psychologist. What you need to know and remember, trying to overcome a depressive state?

Depression – a reason to think about yourself

During stresses and experiences that can lead to depression, a person thinks less about himself. He suffers, he is sad and sad, he does not want to live, because something terrible, bad, terrible has happened in his life, something with which he cannot cope or does not want to accept. The most popular causes of exogenous depression are divorce and separation, death and illness of loved ones, difficult living conditions, unbearable   relations   in the family, the loss.

A serious emotional state of the human psyche can cause any events if they cause pain, upset, take away the strength and desire to live on.

Depressed dreams, unconfirmed expectations, disappointment in yourself and people, unjustified hopes, collapsed plans, waste of time and effort can cause depression. Man falls into it because he is not able to accept and experience an event from the outside world. As a result of the resulting stress, he concentrates only on what happened, without thinking at all about himself.

The situation is aggravated and   depression   begins to “flourish” when a person forgets that he has needs and feelings, that his life goes on and that he still has levers of influence on her. It is impossible to overcome it if the attention of the individual is constantly focused on the traumatic factor. Therefore, one of the ways to overcome it is to stop thinking about what happened and start listening to yourself. You can start with the questions: “How do I live?”, “What do I think about?”, “What am I doing (or not doing) every day?”, “How do I help myself improve my emotional state?”, “To help me wanted for yourself?”.

Suffering is not forever

When a person is ill, he is inclined to think that it will be like this all the time and henceforth from now on – this is one agony and anxiety. Trying to get out of depression, one should understand and accept the fact that there is nothing eternal and permanent and suffering in the world, even if they are very strong now, they will end one day. A person can bring this moment closer if he feels motivation and desire for another life – full, joyful, active, healthy.

The human psyche is changeable

When people are depressed, they tend to form a certain opinion about their personality. So a woman who does not have a relationship with the opposite sex can begin to think that being lonely and not needed by anyone is her fate, the “cross,” which she will have to bear all her life. Such thoughts do not bring joy, do not contribute   growth and change, on the contrary – they are immersed in a dark mood, which is deposited on the appearance and character.

A person, if he does not consider himself worthy of a good one, by his behavior and attitude to life demonstrates this to people with whom he contacts. Trying to get out of depression, you can not “put a cross on yourself,” thinking that someone else deserves happiness.

A person gets the opportunity to change relations with others – to get married after many unsuccessful attempts, to make true friends, to establish contact with parents – if he thinks about changes in his   psyche. The mental processes of the personality are changeable and plastic – all you have to do is start thinking and treating yourself and others around you in a different, new way.

Attitude towards life can be controlled

A clear sign of a depressive state is the decline of internal forces and unwillingness to do something to improve life. In this state, a person believes that nothing depends on him. This is not true. Being in a sound mind and a solid memory, there is always an opportunity to change oneself, one’s attitude to the world around and people, to learn to control thoughts and behavior. The habit of relying on yourself and taking control of your situation will help to change your life for the better.

Help from others may be helpful

Depression is often characterized by loneliness and unwillingness to communicate. Trying to help yourself cope with it, it is important to remember that support and communication with other people – colleagues, friends, relatives, loved ones – can contribute to a speedy mental recovery.Sincere love and support of others can become an example of how to relate to your personality – take care of yourself, experience, help.

Do not deny heavy feelings

Not to notice depression is to avoid what it carries with it. As a rule, these are tears, fatigue, strong emotional experiences, fears, anxieties, pain. In order to help yourself to go through painful emotions, you need to give up the habit of pretending that they are not there, to keep with the last strength, keeping a mask of fun and well-being on your face.

Living hard feelings means talking about your pain as much as you want, not hiding tears, screaming if there is a need for it. You should not do this on your own – best of all, if there is a psychologist next to you who can not only support but also find the right words to go through the painful stage.

“No” habit of being a victim

A person who is depressed is in danger of falling into the role of victim for a long time. This means that he can form such habits in behavior as: infinitely pity himself, envy the strength and well-being of others, complain, constantly admit his impotence, suffer from disorder or illness, but do nothing to change the situation. Unconsciously playing the role of a victim, a person gradually gets used to the fact that everyone regrets him and tries to help. At the same time, he loses the ability to manage his life independently and ceases to feel responsibility for his words and deeds.

Wanting to cope with depression, you need to once and for all refuse to play the role of victim. The first thing to do for this is to recognize the power and ability to control yourself and your life.

Male Depression Lowers Sperm Quality

Posted on April 5, 2019  in Uncategorized

Experts from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) argue that depression in a man significantly reduces his fertility and leads to infertility couples. Female depression does not have such a significant effect on the conception of a child.
Scientists analyzed data on 1.65 thousand women and 1.6 thousand men. In previous studies it was claimed that among people undergoing treatment for infertility, some symptoms of depression are observed in 40% of women and in more than half of men. In this study, depression was detected in 6% of women and 2.3% of men.
The vast majority of women took antidepressants. But due to the side effects of some drugs, 3.5 times more often they suffered from miscarriage in the first trimester than women who did not receive treatment.
Men were much more vulnerable to the disease. If a strong half of the couple had depression, the chances of conceiving were reduced by 60%. Studies show that these men have a much lower sperm concentration in sperm than healthy people.
Scientists point out that more research is needed to study the mechanisms of the effect of depression on male fertility. The psychological aspects of the problem are intuitively understood, the researchers emphasize, but at the physiological and biochemical level they have yet to be clarified.

Depression and relationships: 6 ways to find a friend

Posted on April 1, 2019  in Uncategorized

The incidence of depression is increasing around the world. A significant proportion of patients do not even know about their diagnosis, trying to lead a normal life. Those who know, are often in voluntary isolation from society, unable to cope with the manifestations of their illness. But depression is not a reason to refuse personal life and new acquaintances. If you learn to control your illness, you can lead a full life without depriving yourself of any of its joys. Our site is divided into ways that allow you to prepare for a meeting with a new person and maintain a positive attitude for any outcome.

Depression as a mental disorder

Doctors understand the term “depression” as a mental disorder, and a significant part of the population is a mixture of chronic fatigue and bad mood. In the first case, depression is a serious psychiatric diagnosis that requires treatment from a psychiatrist, regular consultations with a psychotherapist, and medication. In the second, it is enough to talk with a psychotherapist, drink a course of vitamins and establish a daily regimen. The presence of the so-called “depressive triad” is characteristic of a mental disorder called “depression”: anhedonia – inability to feel joy, pathological decrease in mood; changes in thinking towards negativism, pessimism; significant decrease in motor activity. People suffering from depression, lose interest in life, they cease to attract both the daily familiar activities, and earlier favorite hobby, their self-esteem decreases to zero. Single people are sick more often than those who maintain extensive social contacts. Depression should not be taken lightly, 90% of cases of this pathology in case of refusal of treatment end in suicide. At the same time, the existing drugs today allow us to choose the treatment for cases of almost any degree of complexity and bring a person to a normal standard of living, returning him the joy of existence.

Depressive Russia

Not long ago, depression was in fifth place in the world ranking of mental disorders. Today, Russian experts predict that by 202 it will become the undisputed leader. In December last year, doctors from the NICC of Psychiatry and Narcology. V.P. Serbian released data on the incidence of depression among Russians. The most depressive is the Siberian Federal District, where 96.6 cases per 100 thousand people are registered. In second place is the Central District with 87.1 cases, and the third is the Southern Federal District with 73.1 cases per 100 thousand population. The people of the North Caucasus suffer from depression most of all – only 34.9 cases. It should be noted that in Russia, patients with depression are not immediately and do not always turn to doctors for help. Often, a person for a long time to no avail goes to receptions to a psychotherapist who is unable to cure such a pathology, or continues to lead a normal life, more and more plunging into his illness. In the US, the proportion of adults treating depression reaches 40%. These are incomparable figures with Russia. They can talk about both overdiagnosis in the United States and pronounced underdiagnosis in Russia. The latter assumption is confirmed by a significant increase in sales of antidepressants (by 25%) and sedatives (by 11%) in the autumn of last year. Doctors believe that increased levels of anxiety and aggression in society provoke an increase in the incidence of depression. As mentioned, single people are at increased risk for depression. But, even having received such a diagnosis, one can and should live a full life. And acquiring new friends, establishing close contacts is also a step forward in treating depression, allowing you to return to society. Man is a social being, do not underestimate this part of his life. And for this you should learn to manage yourself and your illness.

Method number 1. Depression Calendar The mental state of a depressed patient is not stable.

On some days he is better, while on others the disease covers him upside down and turns him off completely from ordinary life. Doctors recommend depressed patients to keep a diary and look for patterns of mood changes, the severity of symptoms of depression. And, of course, the moment of meeting new people should be considered in terms of their condition. If at the moment a person is at the peak of the struggle with suicidal thoughts, a sense of hopelessness, is experiencing a deep apathy, then you should not go to get acquainted. It is better to wait for a more stable state when the manifestations of the disease weaken.

Method number 2. Plan a comfortable pastime

Initially, you should plan a joint pastime at a comfortable angle for yourself. Immediately you need to choose exactly what suits and pleases the patient with depression: a walk in the park, dinner, a visit to the cinema. Any planned event should be fun, give reason for joy, lift your spirits. It is not necessary to include in the plan items that obviously can lead to a deterioration of the mental state, cause a negative reaction. If something from the points offered by a potential partner is annoying, scary, unnerving, or simply does not like it, it is better to immediately exclude this position from the plan.

Method number 3. The rehearsal of difficult situations.The fear that something can go “wrong”, is inherent in most people, even mentally healthy.

But patients with depression are more vulnerable to unexpected turns of fate. And this vulnerability should be taken into account in such a delicate situation as the upcoming acquaintance with a new person. Psychiatrists advise to seek help from familiar people who the patient has confidence in – this could be a close person or a friend from the social network. With it, you can play various potential situations and rehearse how best to behave in such a way as to protect your vulnerable psyche as much as possible. American psychiatrists at McGill University are now developing a platform for patients that will allow them to simulate different situations with the participation of peers or professional doctors. According to them, during the rehearsal, the patient has the opportunity to feel where his communication will “fall” into negative, and learn to get around the dangerous moments in a timely manner, while maintaining a positive attitude.

Method number 4. Creating a positive attitude in advance

Before you go to the exciting meeting, you should create yourself a positive attitude. For an ordinary healthy person to create a “holiday in the soul” is enough zilch favorite perfume, spectacular makeup or any other action, uplifting and giving confidence. For patients with depression, “recharge” should be more effective.   For example, you can go to the gym, chat on social networks with comfortable people, make a positive entry in your diary. As a result, it is important to recharge yourself with confidence, to feel the anticipation of the holiday.

Method number 5. Depression is a taboo subject for discussion.

When a person is depressed, his personality comes to the fore, he is turned inward, to some extent even fixated, focused on himself. Not surprisingly, often at the time of the first acquaintance, such a patient rather quickly moves in to discuss his beloved and his illness. Psychiatrists advise not to focus on depression, because society has not yet got rid of the stigmatization of mental disorders. In the eyes of most people, clinical depression does not look romantic, but rather repulsive. And dissuade them of this can only be in the course of direct communication. Doctors recommend, on the contrary, to focus on the interlocutor, to show interest in him, in his thoughts and feelings. Firstly, it will allow to get to know a person closer, secondly, he will not push him away right away, in the very first minutes of his acquaintance, thirdly, he will give an opportunity to see himself from a new side, to leave the sink, where the patient is driven by the disease.

Method number 6. Quiet attitude to failures

Refusal to continue dating may even upset a mentally healthy person. People with depression often perceive it as an accusation of their own inferiority. And therein lies their mistake. Doctors remind that any person can receive the refusal, regardless of their personal characteristics. In order to prevent a decrease in self-esteem and an increase in depressive states, dating should be regarded as an unhurried process consisting of many samples — not one but the other, the third, and so on.

Findings

Depression can be learned to manage. With the help of doctors, medicines, keeping a calendar and using your strengths and weaknesses, the disease can be fooled. But most importantly, in the course of dating with other people you should not rush to the final goal, you should enjoy the process. Instead of feeling “I want to be the best,” we must learn to feel better and get rid of the fear of doing or saying something wrong.

Get out of depression yourself

Posted on March 28, 2019  in Uncategorized

People react differently to the cruel blows of fate. Having survived a traumatic event, some are able to maintain an optimistic attitude towards life, while others are often depressed. The most effective way to get out of this depressed state is to contact a psychotherapist. But if professional help is not available, try to get out of depression yourself.

Causes of Depression – Irrational Ideas

Each person is individual. Some people react very emotionally to even the most ordinary events of their lives. To others, it seems, the notion of “depression” is completely unfamiliar; they are able to maintain emotional stability where, in the opinion of others, life ends, losing any meaning.Psychologists have established that the susceptibility of a person to depression is largely determined by the type of nervous system and the characteristics of education.

It is believed that women are more susceptible to the development of depression than men.

It is noticed that those who are prone to depression have common features of thinking. One of them is the tendency to form irrational beliefs. We are talking about not quite realistic ideas that a person considers the only true and correctly reflecting reality and life in general. Sometimes irrational beliefs are realized by man, but more often he does not realize that such ideas dominate him throughout his life.

The first step to getting out of depression is to become aware of your irrational beliefs.

A woman who finds herself in a strip of depression will have to make some efforts to realize the erroneous ideas and replace them with more reasonable ones. Such a process can take several weeks or even months. But if this inner work is carried out successfully, you will be able to radically change your whole life.

How to get out of depression: working with irrational beliefs

Most of the irrational ideas associated with the assessment of his personality or relationships with other people. People who are prone to depressive reactions may, for example, take the view that they should not be angry with others and show their irritation in people. This belief is usually formed in childhood through the influence of strict parents or other significant people.

There is only one step from such an idea until a depressed state arises.

To get out of depression, in this case, you need to take for granted the fact that the manifestation of your true feelings is reasonable and even contributes to the development of relationships.

For some women, one of the irrational beliefs, often anticipating depression, is that you cannot talk about your desires. Those who express their desires out loud, they unconsciously refer to the egoists, transferring this opinion to themselves. Try to remember how often you have heard from your parents and educators that the wishes of other people are more important than yours. Perhaps this is why you have lost the true sense of your own worth.

The described belief often strongly influences how a woman builds relationships with her partner. The difficulty here lies in the fact that the diminution of its role in the relationship day by day forms a steady state of resentment, turning into a pronounced depression. Get out of depression yourself   in this case, work on improving self-esteem and developing self-esteem will help.

These are just some of the ideas that tend to separate those who have a tendency to be depressed.

Remember that external events that trigger the mechanism of the formation of the oppressed state can be very different: the illness of a loved one, rupture of friendships, betrayal of a husband or divorce.

But the psychological basis of the depression following such events, as a rule, are precisely irrational beliefs. Even a simple awareness of them will help you get out of depression on your own.

Effective self-help ways out of depression

It is noticed that those who have inadequately lowered self-esteem, more easily go into a depressed state and more slowly get out of depression. That is why psychologists recommend working to increase self-confidence. Your task is to relax, to feel the value of your personality. It always improves mood and relieves the symptoms of depression.

Start getting out of depression with your thoughts in order. The best way is to start a personal diary. After each day, write events into it, no matter how insignificant they may seem to you. Reflect in the records of what caught your attention, what made you experience strong emotions.

Share your diary impressions of the books you have read and the movies you have watched. At the same time try to focus on pleasant experiences.

Daily make a list of upcoming cases. As the activities from this list cross out. This will give you the opportunity to regularly track your achievements. At the same time, one should not show excessive severity. It is important to feel that your life is filled with a variety of events and actions that you can successfully cope with.

Physical activity is very effective in self-control of depression. Morning jogging or fitness classes contribute to the development of so-called “hormones of happiness” – endorphins, which help relieve the symptoms of a depressed state. In addition, in sports, you will constantly improve their self-esteem.

And finally, the most general recommendation. Virtually any kind of creativity helps to get out of stress and depression. This may be cooking, composing compositions from indoor plants and flowers, handicrafts, musical exercises, writing poems and much more. In the process of engaging in creativity, you are distracted from unpleasant experiences, use your emotions and imagination. A little creativity every day – and there will be no trace of a depressed state.

Natural selection is to blame for the spread of schizophrenia

Posted on March 25, 2019  in Uncategorized

Genes responsible for the development of schizophrenia, have some unknown advantage, which allowed them to gain a foothold and spread in the course of evolution, according to the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Schizophrenia is inherited
Canadian scientists from the University of Simon Fraser (Simon Fraser University) investigated 76 DNA sites associated with the development of schizophrenia. At the same time, human genes were compared with corresponding genes of monkeys (chimpanzees and macaques), as well as mice, rats, cows and dogs.

It turned out that 28 of the 76 genes studied were very persistent and passed down from generation to generation. In the process of transferring genes, they underwent changes much less frequently than DNA segments taken as controls.

High resistance of schizophrenia genes in the process of evolution is confirmed by existing data. This mental illness, capable of being passed down from generation to generation, is diagnosed in about 1% of the world’s population.

The head of research, Bernard Crespi (Bernard Crespi), explained that the fixation and distribution of a gene in populations occurs when it encodes a trait that is useful for one organism or another. This can happen in the case of genes associated with the development of diseases. In particular, it is known that a gene mutation that promotes the development of cystic fibrosis protects a person from cholera, and people suffering from sickle cell anemia are resistant to malaria. The “genes of schizophrenia” can also give their carriers a certain evolutionary advantage, the researchers suggested.

Scientists still do not know what kind of advantage these genes give. Some psychiatrists believe that people with schizophrenia are characterized by a rich imagination and developed creative abilities. Perhaps these characteristics help their carriers to adapt to different life situations and it is easier to find a pair.

The researchers themselves point out that from the point of view of genetics, the relationship between schizophrenia and creativity does not look very convincing.

The search for notorious advantages is hampered by the fact that different genes are responsible for the development of schizophrenia in different nations. Only four of the 28 persistent DNA fragments found by scientists were distributed on more than one continent, the researchers said.

How to determine schizophrenia from pictures

Posted on March 20, 2019  in Uncategorized

One of the most well-known signs of schizophrenia is the splitting of consciousness, which is subjectively experienced as a plurality of one’s own “me.” However, the feeling of a split personality can also occur in the mentally healthy, especially in a situation of making a difficult decision. Therefore, often concerned people are interested in how to recognize schizophrenia. Only a psychiatrist can figure this out with a high degree of accuracy, but there are some simple methods that can be used for initial diagnostics. These include, for example, the analysis of drawings.
How to find schizophrenia
Figures are the product of our figurative thinking and are largely related to the activity of the subconscious. Their plots, features of images, forms and lines can tell a lot about the character and mental state of a person. Scientists have proven this long ago, and now many so-called projective techniques, or drawing tests, are used in the study of the psyche.
How to determine the picture of schizophrenia
Psychologists and psychiatrists also studied the graphic activity of people with mental illness, including schizophrenia. Studies have revealed a number of features characteristic of schizophrenic figures:
randomness, lack of plot and complete images of even individual objects. The face of a person without a nose, and the nose separately aside, a house, one of the walls of which is depicted in another corner of the sheet;
a combination of images (eyes, palms, sun, monsters), signs (letters, numbers), symbols (for example, infinity signs, spirals, male and female symbols), geometric shapes, etc. in one picture;
very complex and confusing symbolism of pictures, understandable only by the patient himself;
images of the eyes and palms are often found;
strange, unusual colors and their combinations;
drawing is almost always accompanied by speech activity, which at this time is also incoherent and chaotic;
the more pronounced the disease, the harder it is for a person to draw and easier to speak.
It may seem that the drawings of people suffering from schizophrenia resemble pictures of some areas of avant-garde art: cubism, symbolism, abstract art, and psychedelic painting. This is not an accident. Many artists, creating their works, deliberately provoked a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenic nonsense. Both drugs and special meditation techniques were used for this.
Answering the question of how to define schizophrenia is not easy, as it is a complex mental disorder, and it has various symptoms. The causes of schizophrenia are not completely clear. Therefore, if there is a suspicion of the presence of this disease in you or your relatives, it is better to contact a specialist.

Night symptoms in COPD

Posted on March 16, 2019  in Uncategorized

The main symptoms of COPD are chronic and progressive dyspnea, cough and sputum production.

A number of studies have shown that most patients with COPD experience symptoms of the disease throughout the day. At the same time, violations associated with COPD cause the greatest discomfort in the morning, but also bother patients at night.

More than half of patients with COPD experience symptoms day and night. At the same time, patients with any combination of night / morning symptoms are more prone to anxiety and depression. It is also worth noting that the quality of sleep in patients with nocturnal COPD symptoms is significantly worse than in patients without nocturnal symptoms.

Patients with COPD require round-the-clock monitoring of symptoms, as most patients with COPD experience symptoms during the entire 24 hours.

Your health care provider may prescribe medications for you to reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations. The doctor can combine the drugs of different groups with each other to enhance the therapeutic effect. If you are taking inhaled drugs, it is very important to follow the rules for using the inhaler. If you have questions about inhalation techniques, be sure to ask them to your doctor.

You can do a lot at home to feel better:

Avoid irritating the lungs – smoke, cold or dry air.

Use an air conditioner or air purifier.

Take rest breaks during the day.

Exercise regularly, especially to train your respiratory muscles, to stay in good physical shape and slow down the progression of the disease.

Eat well. It is very important to preserve your strength and well-being. If you are losing weight, ask your doctor about the need to change the diet.

Be healthy!

Depression depends on memory and pleasure

Posted on March 12, 2019  in Uncategorized

Depending on the strength of the connection between different nerve centers, the brain may tend to either be dependent on something or depression.

Our sense of pleasure depends on the reward system, or the reinforcement system, which is a complex of nerve centers. The reinforcement system does not just give us a feeling of pleasure, it connects it with this or that action or event, why it is called so — our actions are reinforced by something pleasant in the form of a reward. Therefore, it is clear that the reinforcement system plays a huge role in motivation, in training, in managing attention – all these things are somehow tied to pleasure. Roughly speaking, just as a dog is motivated to give a paw in order to get sugar, so a person is motivated to go to work to get praise and a cash reward.

Although, of course, a person is not so simple. First, our motivations can be quite complex, purely internal, depending on our personal values. Secondly, the reinforcement system does not exist by itself, other nerve centers that control the higher nervous activity constantly interact with it – they set the framework for the reinforcement system, plan its work, or simply limit it in desires. It happens, however, that the neural system of checks and balances fails, and then we are dealing with dependence — on food, on alcohol, on opiates, on purchases, etc. The other extreme is depression with anhedonia, or the inability to experience joy either from what; it is obvious that in this case, a person will completely extinct all motivation for any activity.

Since the nerve centers that make up the reinforcement system work together and must constantly exchange information with each other, it can be assumed that neuropsychiatric problems, such as addictions and depression, are at least partially related to the problems of information transfer between the centers of this system. It is known that dependencies are indeed accompanied by a too strong connection between the hippocampus (the memory center, which is included in the reward system) and the adjacent nucleus (which is often called simply the pleasure center).

Researchers at the University of Maryland decided to directly test how the gain and weakening of the connection between the hippocampus and the adjacent nucleus affect behavior. The neurons that form this connection in mice were modified by optogenetic methods so that they respond to light. With the help of optical fiber implanted in the brain, activated communication channel between the two brain centers; and this communication channel was getting stronger. As a result, as stated in an article in Nature, mice had the memory of a false reward. The animals were motivated to take certain actions, and a day later they returned to the place where they were stimulated by neurons – although they received no real reward. It is worth emphasizing that the researchers acted not on the hippocampus, not on the pleasure center, but on the information “bus” between them.

Then the authors of the work acted differently: in mice, other neurons were modified, which suppress the activity of nerve cells between the hippocampus and the pleasure center. Now, when using neurons-suppressors with the help of light, they weakened this communication channel — and before that, communicative mice stopped coming to where they communicated with their comrades. For social rodents, this behavior is an anomaly that is a sign of depression; because with depression, there really is no motivation to communicate with others.

Moreover, when initially depressed mice were taken for an experiment (and animals can be simulated signs of depression, although this is not a real, “human” depression), it turned out that the connection between the hippocampus memory center and their pleasure center is weak – and what is important, direct stimulation of neurons does not enhance it. However, if the animals were given antidepressants, the information channel returned to normal, and they could create a false memory of pleasant things, as described above.

The depressed brain has other features; For example, last year we wrote that because of certain features in the structure of serotonin neurons during depression, serotonin ceases to flow into the nerve centers. On the other hand, the more we know about the mechanism of depression, the sooner we will find some effective remedy for it. Since the connection between the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens plays a role both in the formation of dependencies and in depressions, it is possible that both dependencies and depression can be overcome by acting on the neurons connecting these two nerve centers.

“Owls” and schizophrenia

Posted on March 8, 2019  in Uncategorized

The “owls” and “larks” added DNA

People with different chronotypes, that is, “owls” and “larks”, go to bed at different times. And this is not only a matter of habit – “owl” and “larks” largely depends on genes. The other day, Nature Communications published a large-scale study in which features of chronotypes were compared with genetic data. As a result, we managed to find as many as 351 sections in our DNA, which to some extent affects the chronotype; whereas before it was believed that there are only 24 such sites in our genome. If there are certain sequences of nucleotides in these areas, a person is inclined to wake up earlier.

We are talking about DNA segments, and not specific genes, that is, there may be more than one gene, and even with regulatory sequences. Among the genes that have fallen into these areas of the genome are those that control biological clocks, those that affect glucose metabolism, those that affect the response to nicotine and caffeine, and many more. Some of them work in the brain, some kind of – in the retina, some – in other places.

Along the way, the authors of the work noticed that the “soviet” a person is, the higher his genetic predisposition to depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, and the worse he feels. This is due precisely to the chronotype, but not to insomnia and not to the quality of sleep (although it can be assumed that if a person does not just go to bed late and get up late, but also sleep poorly, then the likelihood of neuropsychiatric disorders will only increase)

At the same time, no connection was found between the “genes of the chronotype” and the likelihood of diabetes or obesity. However, it is necessary to clarify here that it is usually said about diabetes and obesity in connection with sleep, when a person randomly disrupts his daily rhythm, when his body simply cannot understand how to live – “lark” or “owl”. That is, probably, it is necessary to distinguish the chronotype, which went by genes, and the one that we impose on ourselves.