What drugs are used in the treatment of schizophrenia

Posted on July 8, 2022  in Uncategorized

The notion that schizophrenia is a rare disease is erroneous. Mental illnesses are very common. That is why the development of modern methods of treatment and drugs plays such an important role: it is possible to reduce the suffering of the patient, his relatives, and also help the person return to a full life.

Drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia

Azaleptin has been treated since the 80s of the 20th century. Despite the prescription of use, today this drug is the most powerful antipsychotic – it is characterized by the highest rates of antipsychotic activity. In this parameter, the drug surpasses many others.

The effectiveness of the drug has been proven by 15 different clinical studies. For example, Azaleptin was compared with a foreign analogue. Testing was carried out by two main methods: alternating the use of drugs in one group of patients or parallel use of drugs in two different groups with similar symptoms.

Azaleptin is no less effective for affective -delusional disorders, hallucinatory-delusional, delusional than the most modern antipsychotics and Leponex – the original analogue of the drug has an identical spectrum of effects, as well as a similar specificity of side effects.

It is used not only in the treatment of schizophrenia, but also in the development of certain addictions. For example, with alcoholism. Also, patients with delusional disorders, as well as mood disorders, are subject to treatment with this method.

What neuroleptics are the most modern?

Clozapine treatment involves a very low risk of formation and further development of extrapyramidal disorders. Tardive dyskinesia also does not appear. This drug can (and should!) be used when it comes to the development of tardive dysinesia , which can be triggered by the use of other drugs.

Danilov conducted a number of studies related to the use of this tool. As a result: it is taken to assert that the use of the drug is safer than it was previously believed.

Treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics and the use of the aforementioned drug: the use of the latter is in no way inferior to the use of other modern methods of treatment. Some also note the “superiority” – the risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is excluded.

What is schizophrenia, what is it like

Posted on July 2, 2022  in Uncategorized

Schizophrenia is a fairly common mental illness. It is manifested by violations of thinking, perception, emotional-volitional disorders and inappropriate behavior. The term “schizophrenia” was proposed by the Swiss psychopathologist E. Bleiler . Literally, it means “splitting of the mind” (from the ancient Greek words “ σχίζω ” – I split and “ φρήν ” – reason, mind).

Historical background on schizophrenia

The first information about schizophrenia-like symptoms dates back to 2000 BC. Periodically, many eminent physicians of various eras have also described similar psychotic disorders. In his work The Medical Canon, Avicenna spoke of severe insanity, somewhat reminiscent of schizophrenia. Pathology began to be studied in more detail only at the end of the 19th century. The German psychiatrist E. Kraepelin (1856-1926) observed adolescent patients suffering from various psychoses. In the process of research, he found that after some time all patients developed a similar state of special dementia. It has been called “dementia praecox” ( dementia praecox ). Other psychiatrists have added to and expanded on the symptoms, course, and outcomes of this illness. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss psychopathologist E. Bleiler proposed introducing a new name for the disease – “schizophrenia”. He proved that pathology occurs not only at a young age, but also in adulthood. Its characteristic feature is not dementia, but “violation of the unity” of the psyche. The proposed concept of schizophrenia was recognized by all psychiatrists.

Why does schizophrenia develop?

Despite the high level of development of modern medicine, it has not yet been possible to establish the exact cause of this disease. Psychiatrists are more inclined to the genetic theory of the occurrence of schizophrenia. It says: if there is a patient with schizophrenia in the family, then his blood relatives are at high risk of developing this pathology. However, the type of inheritance and the molecular genetic basis of the disease are unknown. An important role in the development of schizophrenia is played by personality traits, low social status (poverty, poor living conditions, a dysfunctional family, etc.), various diseases (drug addiction, alcoholism, chronic somatic pathologies, traumatic brain injuries, protracted psychotraumatic situations, etc.) Sometimes The onset of schizophrenia is preceded by stressful events, but most patients develop schizophrenia “spontaneously”.

Typical forms of the disease

Typical forms of schizophrenia include paranoid, hebephrenic, catatonic and simple forms.

Paranoid form (F20.0)

Most often in their practice, psychiatrists encounter a paranoid form of schizophrenia. In addition to the main signs of schizophrenia (impaired coherence of thinking, autism, decreased emotions and their inadequacy), delusions predominate in the clinical picture of this form. It typically manifests as persecutory delusions without hallucinations, grandeur delusions, or influence delusions. There may be signs of mental automatism, when patients believe that someone from the outside influences their own thoughts and actions.

Hebephrenic form (F20.1)

The most malignant form of schizophrenia is hebephrenic. This form is characterized by manifestations of childishness and foolish, ridiculous excitement. Patients make faces, can laugh for no reason, and then suddenly become indignant, show aggression and destroy everything in their path. Their speech is inconsistent, saturated with repetitions and invented words, very often accompanied by cynical abuse. The disease usually begins in adolescence (12-15 years) and progresses rapidly.

Catatonic form (F20.2)

In the clinical picture of the catatonic form of schizophrenia, motor function disorders predominate. Patients for a long period of time are in an unnatural and often uncomfortable position, without feeling tired. They refuse to follow instructions, do not answer questions, although they understand the words and commands of the interlocutor. Immobility in some cases (catalepsy, a symptom of “mental (air) cushion”) is replaced by attacks of catatonic excitement and impulsive actions. In addition, patients can copy facial expressions, movements and statements of the interlocutor.

Simple form (F20.6)

For a simple form of schizophrenia, an increase in exclusively negative symptoms, in particular, apathico-abulic syndrome, is characteristic. It is manifested by emotional poverty, indifference to the world around, indifference to oneself, lack of initiative, inactivity and rapidly growing isolation from people around. At first, a person refuses to study or work, breaks off relations with relatives and friends, wanders. Then, gradually, the accumulated baggage of knowledge is lost and “schizophrenic dementia” develops.

Atypical forms of the disease

In the clinic of atypical forms of schizophrenia, non-standard, not quite characteristic signs predominate. Atypical forms include schizoaffective psychosis, schizotypal disorder ( neurosis-like and variant), febrile schizophrenia, and some other forms of schizophrenia.

Schizoaffective psychosis (F 25)

Schizoaffective psychosis is a special condition that is characterized by the paroxysmal occurrence of schizophrenic (delusional, hallucinatory) and affective symptoms (manic, depressive and mixed). These symptoms develop during the same attack. At the same time, the clinical picture of the attack does not meet either the criteria for manic-depressive psychosis or the criteria for schizophrenia.

Schizotypal disorder ( neurosis-like variant) (F 21)

The neurosis -like variant of schizotypal disorder is manifested by asthenic, hysterical symptoms or obsessive phenomena that resemble the clinic of the corresponding neuroses. However, neurosis is a psychogenic reaction to a traumatic situation. A schizotypal disorder is a disease that occurs spontaneously and does not correspond to the existing frustrating experiences. In other words, it is not a response to a stressful situation and is characterized by absurdity, deliberateness, as well as isolation from reality.

Febrile schizophrenia

In extremely rare cases, there are acute psychotic states with signs of severe toxicosis, called febrile schizophrenia. Patients have a high temperature, symptoms of somatic disorders (subcutaneous and intraorganic hemorrhages, dehydration, tachycardia, etc.) are increasing . Patients are confused, rush about in bed, make senseless movements, cannot say who they are and where they are. Febrile schizophrenia should be distinguished from neuroleptic malignant syndrome. This is a fairly rare life-threatening disorder associated with the use of psychotropic drugs, most often neuroleptics. Malignant neuroleptic syndrome is manifested, as a rule, by muscle rigidity, fever, vegetative changes and various mental disorders.

Rare forms of delusional psychosis

Rare forms of delusional psychoses include chronic delusional disorders (paranoia, late paraphrenia , etc.), acute transient psychoses.

Chronic delusional disorders (F22)

This group of psychoses includes various disorders in which chronic delusions are the only or most prominent clinical feature. Delusional disorders observed in patients cannot be classified as schizophrenic, organic or affective. It is likely that the causes of their occurrence are genetic predisposition, personality traits, life circumstances and other factors. Chronic delusional disorders include paranoia, tardive paraphrenia , paranoid psychosis, and paranoid schizophrenia with sensitive relationship delusions.

Paranoia (F22.0)

Patients suffering from paranoia are often suspicious, touchy, jealous. They tend to see the intrigues of ill-wishers in random events, remember grievances for a long time, do not perceive criticism, and treat people around them with acute distrust. They often have overvalued delusions of grandeur and/or persecution, on the basis of which patients are able to build complex logical conspiracy theories directed against themselves. Often, those suffering from paranoia write a huge number of complaints against imaginary ill-wishers to various authorities, and also start lawsuits.

Acute transient psychoses (F23)

The clinic of acute transient psychosis develops after a fleeting period of confusion, anxiety, restlessness and insomnia. Psychosis is characterized by the appearance of acute sensory delusions with rapid changes in its structure. Most often, there are delusions of influence, persecution, relationships, staging, false recognitions and delusions of a double. Hallucinatory experiences, true auditory and pseudohallucinations are possible. As a rule, they are unstable and tend to quickly change each other.

Types of schizophrenia and prognosis

There are three types of the course of schizophrenia: continuous, periodic ( recurrent ) and paroxysmal- progressive (coat-like).

Continuous schizophrenia

This type of schizophrenia is characterized by steadily progressive dynamics. Depending on the degree of its progression , a malignant, moderately progressive and sluggish course is distinguished. With a continuous course, there are periods of exacerbation of the symptoms of schizophrenia and their relief. However, full-fledged qualitative remissions are not observed. The clinical and social prognosis in the majority of such patients is unfavorable. The vast majority of patients undergo inpatient treatment or stay in neuropsychiatric boarding schools. All of them sooner or later receive the first group of disability. In some patients, after many years from the onset of the disease, clinical manifestations are somewhat reduced and due to this they are kept at home, remaining unable to work.

Periodic ( recurrent ) schizophrenia

With this type of schizophrenia, attacks of productive mental disorders occur periodically and are not accompanied by profound personality changes. Their number is different. Some have one attack in their entire life, others have several, and still others have more than ten. Attacks of schizophrenia can last from a few days to several months. They are of the same type (similar to each other) or heterogeneous (dissimilar to each other). The medical and social prognosis for intermittent schizophrenia is generally quite favorable. This is due to the insignificant severity of negative personality changes or their absence due to persistent intermission or practical recovery. The prognosis worsens with worsening, lengthening and more frequent attacks of recurrent schizophrenia.

Paroxysmal progressive schizophrenia

The most common paroxysmal -progressive course of schizophrenia. This variant of the course is characterized by the presence of episodic attacks of schizophrenia with inferior low-quality remissions. Each attack leads to a personality defect, as well as an increase in delusions and hallucinations. The degree of progression of fur-like schizophrenia and the depth of the mental defect may vary. The clinical and social prognosis of this type of schizophrenia course is determined by the rate of increase in personality changes, as well as the duration, frequency and severity of attacks. An unfavorable prognosis has a fur-like schizophrenia with a rapidly emerging mental defect. Relatively favorable prognosis for sluggish coat-like schizophrenia. It is characterized by the rare occurrence of seizures that are non -psychotic in nature. The rest of the cases are at intermediate levels between these extreme options.

Differential diagnosis of schizophrenia

The diagnosis of schizophrenia is established after the duration of the disease has exceeded six months. In this case, there must be a significant violation of social adaptation or disability. At its core, schizophrenia is a diagnosis of exclusion. To establish it, it is necessary to exclude affective disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction, which could lead to the development of psychopathological symptoms. Huge difficulties arise in the differential diagnosis of catatonic and paranoid forms of schizophrenia from the corresponding forms of somatogenic, infectious, toxic, traumatic and other exogenous psychoses during their long course. The basis for the construction of the diagnosis is specific clinical manifestations: emotional dullness, disturbances in the harmony of thinking and volitional disorders.

Suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

The term “suicidal behavior” refers to a conscious action that is aimed at voluntarily depriving oneself of one’s life. In schizophrenia, one can speak about it only if the suicidal person is aware of his actions (does not stay in a psychotic state, and also does not have pronounced personality defects). In other cases, such behavior is considered auto-aggressive .

According to statistics, about half of patients with schizophrenia have attempted suicide over a twenty-year period of the disease. Of these, 10% were completed. Suicidal behavior is a direct indication for seeking psychiatric advice. And the best option is to hospitalize the suicide in a psychiatric hospital.

Treatment of schizophrenia

The vast majority of people with schizophrenia need qualified help in a psychiatric hospital. Hospitalization allows for constant monitoring of the patient, capturing minimal changes in his condition. At the same time, the clinical manifestations of the disease are detailed, additional studies are carried out, and psychological tests are performed.

Despite advances in modern medicine, there is no way to completely cure schizophrenia. However, the methods of therapy used today can significantly alleviate the patient’s condition, reduce the number of relapses of the disease and almost completely restore his social and daily functioning. Psychopharmacotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of schizophrenia . For this purpose, three groups of psychotropic drugs are used: antipsychotics, antidepressants and tranquilizers. They are used for a long time (from a week to several years, up to a life-long intake). It is important to remember that the sooner treatment for schizophrenia is started, the better the prognosis awaits the patient.

Treatment with psychotropic drugs

Antipsychotic therapy is indicated in the presence of an acute condition. The choice of drug depends on the clinical symptoms of an attack (exacerbation). In the case of dominance of psychomotor agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, neuroleptics are used, which have a predominant sedative effect ( tizercin , chlorpromazine , chlorprothixene ). If hallucinatory-paranoid symptoms predominate, “powerful” typical antipsychotics are prescribed that are able to fight them (haloperidol, trifluoperazine ). The polymorphism of clinical symptoms requires the use of typical antipsychotics with a broad antipsychotic effect ( mazheptil or piportil ). Sluggish schizophrenia is treated with low to moderate doses of antipsychotics and antidepressants. In the case of sluggish schizophrenia, accompanied by phobias and obsessions , sedative tranquilizers ( relanium , phenazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam ) are used.

Dealing with the side effects of antipsychotics

Prolonged use of antipsychotics very often leads to their drug intolerance. It manifests itself by side effects from the nervous system and the development of complications ( tardive dyskinesia and neurolepsy ). In such situations, antipsychotics are prescribed that do not cause or practically do not cause unwanted neurological symptoms ( leponex , ziprexa , rispolept ). In the event of dyskinesia , antiparkinsonian drugs ( akineton , napam , cyclodol, etc.) are included in the therapy . If depressive disorders appear, antidepressants are used ( reksetin , anafranil , lyudiomil , amitriptyline, etc.). You should know that all appointments are made and corrected by the doctor. Spontaneous withdrawal of drugs is prohibited. This carries a high risk of relapse.

Other treatments for schizophrenia

To date, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), insulin coma and atropinocoma therapy remain relevant. They are not considered as first-line treatments, but they can be used when other methods are ineffective. Psychotherapy, family therapy, art therapy and other methods are aimed at social and professional rehabilitation.

Social rehabilitation

Social rehabilitation is indicated for almost all patients suffering from schizophrenia, with the exception of patients in whom the ability to work is preserved and social adaptation has an appropriate level. Even in severe cases, a number of patients partially recover basic self-care skills. After a multi-stage social rehabilitation, they can be involved in simple labor activities.

Advice for the family of a person with schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious illness, both for the person himself and for his close circle. However, if a person is not able to understand that he is sick, the family is simply obliged to recognize the disease and seek help from a psychiatrist. It is time to dispel the existing stereotypes that it is impossible to help a patient with schizophrenia. Maybe. With properly selected therapy, long-term high-quality remissions are achieved with full recovery of working capacity over a long period of time. The main thing is to recognize the disease in time and start treatment. If this is not done, the person, as a rule, is waiting for emergency hospitalization already in a state of psychosis. Don’t wait until the worst happens to take action. Relatives are the only people who can change the life of a schizophrenic patient for the better. The quality of life of patients suffering from this disease largely depends on their support and their participation in the recovery process. If you suspect that someone close to you has schizophrenia, contact a psychiatrist immediately.

Neurographics : benefits and features

Posted on June 26, 2022  in Uncategorized

A relatively young direction in working with the subconscious and inner feelings of a person. The author of this direction is the psychologist and coach Pavel Piskarev. Its main feature is the transfer of emotions and feelings through paper, expressing all sensations through geometric shapes. Neurographics perfectly combines drawing and already proven methods: psychosynthesis and gestalt psychology.

Subtleties and basic patterns of neurographic session

The main patterns of neurographics are built very simply. Thanks to the drawing, a person uses his neural connections, which allows him to convey his problems, feelings and even life strategies through it. For example, making the corners in the figures less sharp, as if rounding them, a person tries to mitigate the conflict, minimize negative emotions.

At the neurographic session, you can use the following figures:

– circle – an element that symbolizes positive, security and harmony,

– square – a state of reliability and strength, the ability to organize and attract, but on the other hand, it is conservatism that needs to be traced and defined correctly,

– triangle – an element that confirms an active life position and purposefulness, but at the same time, aggressiveness is possible.

A neurographic session allows you to learn how to smooth out certain moments, build a sequence of events that will allow you to develop correctly and at the same time not harm the emotional state of a person.

neurographic session at first glance is a creative process, but at the same time, it has its own rules. Their observance is necessary to achieve the goal.

1. Concentration of attention on the task. Extraneous conversations, thoughts and any distractions must be neutralized . You need to immerse yourself in the process of drawing, this will enable the specialist to quickly identify the source of anxiety and confusion.

2. Openness and sincerity. It is these two qualities that make the work effective and achieve positive dynamics.

3. Don’t chase instant results. Don’t focus on the result. You need to focus it on drawing and enjoy it, without pursuing other goals. It is this approach that will allow you to get the highest quality result.

Positive and negative aspects of neurographics

Neurographics is a young direction in psychology, which very quickly gained confidence and became in demand. It allows you to find ways to solve many problems.

The main positive features include:

– simplicity – you do not need to have special drawing skills to create elementary shapes.

– accessibility – neurographic sessions can be carried out anywhere and with the simplest available tools: crayons. Paints, markers.

– the ability to switch – in the process of drawing, neural connections are involved, which help to relax and disconnect from real problems and troubles.

– entry into a resource state – as a result of the work, you can quickly trace and focus on sharp corners, find a compromise and a solution.

– speed – neurographics with the right approach in 3-4 hours helps to work out the main points of a person’s request.

The negative aspects of neurographics include:

– the importance of an accurate interpretation of what is drawn. A detailed study of this direction in psychology helps to correctly solve the problem,

– the inability to work out deep shocks and old pockets of problems. Neurographics helps to cope with such traumas as: anger, anger, anxiety or confusion.

Neurographics is an excellent method for solving psychological problems, leveling the emotional state and dealing with negative emotions.

Harassment : what is it and main characteristics

Posted on June 20, 2022  in Uncategorized

The concept of harassment appeared in our everyday life in 2017. An imported word, without which today it is practically indispensable.

Formally, this is a term that refers to any action that allows you to offend and injure a person. Often this term is used in the sense of harassment.

Features and causes of the manifestation of harassment

The reasons for the manifestation of harassment are simple and natural. Men like women, and women need masculine strength and protection. At the moment when a woman is in a dependent state on a man, namely, a working or business relationship, and harassment is possible . To restrain a man from such a state can only be his own moral principles. If there are no such principles, then harassment occurs immediately. This not only hurts the opposite sex, but also creates psychological trauma for him.

The main reason for the manifestation of harassment is the lack of any regulatory framework and moral principles. The legislation of most countries simply does not provide for punishment for such actions. How to fight and resist this depends only on the other side and the specific circumstances in which it finds itself. The only thing you definitely shouldn’t do is endure and take it for granted.

How to deal with and resist harassment

Under the circumstances, the fight against harassment is solely the problem of the injured party. With this approach, it is important to understand that it is better to direct all your efforts to the prevention of such actions. As practice and statistics show, to cope with manifestations of harassment , you can use the following techniques:

1. Be specific and unambiguous in words and actions. This is necessary in order to avoid any misunderstandings .

2. Stick to the sequence. If you do not intend to reciprocate, do not accept courtship, nullify any unpleasant and incomprehensible situations of intimacy.

3. Be restrained and polite. Everyone has a very different level of tolerance, as well as the limits of what is acceptable. Therefore, it is very important to culturally and discreetly explain all your wishes. Be frank, if you do not like the situation, say so, do not smile and pretend that everything is fine.

4. Get rid of feelings of envy. Don’t be jealous of a friend who successfully married her boss. Envy is a terrible feeling, and the desire to get a job at someone else’s expense for many men is a great call to action.

5. Raise your skill level. A valuable specialist who makes a profit does not allow thoughts about the possibility of informal relationships. Men are afraid of strong women, so a confident and competent employee is simply too tough for harassment .

6. Do not stand on ceremony and speak directly. Direct displeasure is much better than a smile in response to a clear injustice.

In any case, do not lose heart and despair. It is despair that very often serves as the last impetus to the action of harassment . If you are unable to cope with the aggressivity of the opposite side on your own, try to involve outsiders in order to stop the desire a little, and reduce the number of opportunities. Only active opposition and direct statements in response to immoral actions help to cope with such people. But at the same time, it is very important not to use aggression, which can become an urge and impetus for illegal actions.

Compliance with minimum ethical measures in working relationships allows you to prevent and stop the manifestation of harassment.

Delusions of grandeur: problem or superiority of the 21st century

Posted on June 14, 2022  in Uncategorized

In the modern world, the expression ” megalomania ” is used quite often, which implies an unfriendly attitude towards inflated self-esteem and narcissism of oneself .

There were times when delusional thoughts or ideas were designated by mania , but the main definition refers to an inflated self-esteem of oneself. From a medical point of view, such a phenomenon must be suppressed and neutralized at the stage of its early manifestation, otherwise it is already a psychological disorder.

The scale and types of crazy ideas

A crazy idea is equivalent to a false judgment, which has the following characteristics:

– delirium that occurs against the background of the disease,

– extreme definition of its significance,

– undeniable ideas and actions.

Against the background of various forms of manifestation and emergence of delusional ideas, there are several types of them:

– delusions of persecution – this is a paranoid delusion, when a person constantly has the feeling that he is being persecuted, threatened and even wants to kill,

– delirium of self-accusation – a depressive type of delirium, which is clearly manifested in a sense of guilt for an allegedly perfect act. This state of affairs can lead to suicide

– delusions of grandeur – manic delirium, which implies a clear overestimation of one’s personality. It is this condition that often lies behind the destruction of relationships in the family, at work and in society.

In science, the concept of “megalomania” is called megalomania or expansive delirium. This is a pathopsychological syndrome, which is manifested by a distorted self-perception and manifests itself through a global reassessment of one’s own personality.

There are several major factors that lead or are the source of this condition.

1. Special origin . Very often belonging to a noble family, the presence of great wealth cause growing signs of megalomania.

2. Invention or scientific activity . An outstanding scientific discovery very often leads to an increase in its significance and self-confidence. The person loses groundedness and is prone to displaying the main symptoms of megalomania.

3. Reformation . A person’s belief that he must radically change certain events makes him show his primacy and importance among others.

4. Love nonsense . This is a global idea that a famous person is in love or in love with him, and in this case the importance of his (her) person increases.

5. Messianism – a person’s belief that he is a prophet and has an important destiny before the people.

It is difficult to say that men or women are more susceptible to such a pathopsychomatic syndrome, but in any case, it is important to contact specialists at the first signs or sensations of such a manifestation.

The main symptoms of “delusions of grandeur”

The idea of one’s own greatness affects not only thinking, but also significantly changes a person’s behavior. All his words and actions are aimed at demonstrating his uniqueness. The main symptoms of “delusions of grandeur” include:

– a clear and global focus on one’s personality,

– belief in one’s own uniqueness and significance,

– identification with a famous character,

– focusing only on one’s own opinion,

– a confident and clear sense of superiority over everyone,

– absolute immunity to criticism.

Having identified the main symptoms, it becomes obvious that a person who has such manifestations is not safe not only for society, but also for himself, especially in the case of a neglected situation.

The main and global problem of “megalomania” is a state of depression, which in 41% of cases leads to suicide.

It is important to note that “megalomania” is not treatable. In the process of treatment and observation, specialists identify the focus and the cause of such a deviation and treat it as the underlying disease.

With mild forms of the disease, treatment occurs on an outpatient basis, with more complex forms, it is already stationary.

Excellent student syndrome – what it is and how it manifests itself

Posted on June 8, 2022  in Uncategorized

Often, children who study flawlessly at school, win prizes at olympiads, and win medals at competitions, are subject to the “excellent student syndrome”, which is a direct or indirect payment for success. In psychology, this syndrome borders on perfectionism, but has its own special features that betray its presence. Therefore, it is quite possible to diagnose yourself by choosing the treatment on an individual basis.

Key Features of the Excellence Syndrome

Having understood the terminology, it will not be difficult for any person to understand whether he is prone to the syndrome of an excellent student. Such a phenomenon as a set of psychological characteristics of a person, due to the presence of which he shows a desire to achieve the best result, is called the syndrome of an excellent student. At the same time, for a person, the priority is to achieve success and encouragement, and not the process and benefit.

The syndrome can affect both children and adults. In childhood, the deviation occurs unconsciously, while in the older group of people there is the possibility of awareness of what is happening. Symptoms often include symptoms such as:

• variability of self-esteem, strongly dependent on outsiders’ opinions;

• comparing your results with the successes of others;

• the presence of a constant fear of making a mistake, and therefore the refusal to implement something new;

• a constant desire to please the desires of other people;

• emergence of envy at the best result of contenders.

Also, the tendency to develop depression after making a mistake is a clear indication of the development of the syndrome. At the same time, fear of making mistakes, fear of the opinions of others and fear of criticism are considered key aspects of the disorder. Along the way, people with an excellent student syndrome live with other people’s values, ideals, sometimes without realizing it themselves.

Typical mistakes indicating the onset of the syndrome

Often, the syndrome of an excellent student in children and adolescents develops as a result of pressure from adults and their use of phrases that can send a child on the path of an excellent student. The dialogue will certainly include the following questions:

• “How was your day?” instead of “How are you?”;

• “Did the others make it?”

Also, the person himself can contribute to the formation of the disorder through incorrect thinking. Then such phrases as “I’m afraid to forget to say something during the speech” or “I’m worried that I won’t be able to do something according to the planned scenario” will be clearly traced.

If it is not possible to immediately track the origin of the problem, then it is advisable to resort to checking yourself by passing tests, questionnaires devoted to a comprehensive assessment of personality traits:

• on the Dembo – Rubinshtein self-assessment scale;

• according to the standardized multifactorial method of studying the personality of L.N. Sobchik ;

• armed with a multidimensional Hewitt -Flett perfectionism scale .

In the event that a problem or disturbing symptoms are detected, it is better to immediately take effective measures to prevent the situation from aggravating.

Ways to get rid of the excellent student syndrome

Although susceptibility to this personality disorder is a common problem, it is possible to get rid of it on your own with a certain amount of effort.

1. Awareness of the problem (accepting the fact that the presence of a syndrome is a vulnerability in a person’s characteristics is the first step towards getting rid of the problem).

2. A closer look around (trying to understand your own environment, which forms the wrong views, allows you to eliminate from the circle of friends, acquaintances who are toxic people who encourage the appearance of the syndrome).

3. Give yourself permission to play pranks (due to the fact that the problem comes from childhood, it is important for a person of any age to allow himself to be imperfect, and give himself the freedom to play pranks from the heart).

4. Eliminate the habit of comparing yourself with other people (you should switch the focus from the result to the process, prioritizing your own needs, not looking back at the achievements of others).

5. Passing a special online program (Psychic Self-Regulation will help you quickly improve your own state of mind, a program that, after completing it in 6 weeks, will be able to forget about the presence of the excellent student syndrome in your life).

6. Familiarization with narrowly focused books (deep immersion in the topic can be achieved by reading the works of Ruby Wax “Being yourself”, Erich Fromm “Man for himself”).

In order to prevent the development of the syndrome from childhood, it is important for parents to praise their own child, paying attention to the ability to do something on their own, and not to receive high marks for the actions done. The manifestation of love, benevolence will become good companions on the way to the formation of a healthy personality of a growing child.

Psychotropic drugs disappeared from the pharmacy network

Posted on June 2, 2022  in Uncategorized

Against the background of sanctions and the economic blockade of Russia by the West, many foreign pharmaceutical companies have stopped or significantly limited the supply of medicines to the Russian market.

Last time, we already talked about the abrupt disappearance of Zooloft and its analogues from the network. But that situation was associated with a sharp increase in demand for the drug, due to the increased number of depressive and anxiety disorders associated with the COVID pandemic.

The second blow to the psychopharmacological market was the sanctions and the desire of the population to stock up on drugs for the future.

Now the patient, instead of the prescribed amount of the drug for a month, takes 3-10 times the amount of the drug.

This applies to almost all groups of psychotropic drugs: neuroleptics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants / mood stabilizers , tranquilizers / anxiolytics / hypnotics and nootropics

to neuroleptics, one of the first buyers began to experience difficulties with the acquisition of Seroquel ( Quetiapine ), mainly its prolonged forms, Rispolept ( risperidone ), Zyprexa ( olnazapine ). There are still enough classic Haloperidol and Aminazine.

anti-anxiety drugs has sharply increased , both from the classical groups: phenazepam, alprozolam , grandaxin , and from related ones: teraledgen , atarax , seroquel , phenibut , sonapax , etc.

Even if a pharmacy with a certain number of packages is indicated in the drug search engine, in fact they are no longer there.

Although the sale of drugs from the hands is prohibited, this did not stop either buyers or resellers. The price tag on the “gray market” can be 2-5 times higher than the retail price, depending on the drug.

The situation is aggravated by the partial closure of borders with producing countries and logistical problems. If earlier, when the drug went for re-registration, disappeared from sale (2-12 months), it was possible to use the services of the so-called medicinal “shuttles” that brought drugs from Europe (allowed for import into the Russian Federation), now this possibility is no longer there.

Anticonvulsants (they are also normotimics ) also quickly left the pharmacy counters, lamiktal ( lamotrigine ), depakine ( valproate acid) and finlepsin ( carbamazepine ) – one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in their class.

According to experts, the improvement of the situation is expected by the beginning of May.

Types of noise in the head

Posted on May 27, 2022  in Uncategorized

Sounds in the head, audible only to a person, can have a different character: ringing, buzzing, buzzing, hissing, pulsing, clicking. They are permanent or occur from time to time, for example, only with pressure drops, after stress or physical exertion. They can be sharp or weak, intensify or weaken with a change in position.

Increased sensitivity to sounds due to constant tinnitus

Noise in the head can be localized in the left or right temporal region, in the back of the head, on the sides, or only in the area of the ears. Its intensity and nature depend on the disturbances in the body that provoked its appearance.

White noise

It is monotonous, barely audible, reminiscent of the rustling of leaves. Often does not leave a person even at rest, which causes insomnia, reduced performance, irritability and nervousness.

Noise like a high voltage line

In inflammatory diseases of the patient’s hearing organs, the noise, reminiscent of the sound of electrical wires or a transformer, does not leave. To get rid of it, you need to treat the underlying disease.

Sometimes this nature of the noise occurs against the background of high body temperature, physical exertion, stress at work.

dull noise

Feels in the back of the head. Although it is not loud, it affects sleep, concentration and quality of life. May indicate vasoconstriction.

monotonous noise

It feels like a constant buzzing in the head. It can cause cervical osteochondrosis, age-related changes in the auditory analyzer.

Sharp noise in the head with deafening

The appearance of a sharp noise in the head is associated with damage to the eardrum, a jump in arterial or intracranial pressure, or a traumatic brain injury.

Throbbing noise in the head and ears

More often it has a vascular origin, occurs due to vascular damage. A person feels how it pulsates in the temples, neck or ears.

Head numbness with noise

In case of violation of cerebral circulation due to narrowing of blood vessels against the background of osteochondrosis or other problems, a feeling of numbness in the occipital region is likely.

Presses head and tinnitus

The pressing pain that accompanies tinnitus is usually felt with hypertension or increased intracranial pressure. With a migraine, a person describes his condition as if his head was clamped in a vise.

ringing noise

It can be constant or intermittent, has a different volume. More often indicates diseases of the hearing organs, but may indicate hypertension. As soon as the pressure drops, the ringing immediately decreases.

High frequency noise in the head

Quite annoying, interferes with work. Its appearance is most often caused by disorders in the inner ear. It is often not accompanied by hearing loss at first, but if nothing is done, then audibility decreases.

What to do with noise in the ears and head?

Noise can cause various diseases, external factors. Certain antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications can cause hearing loss and ringing in the ear. You cannot self-medicate, you must seek medical help.

With noise in the head, a neurologist will help. For a consultation with an experienced specialist, you can sign up at the SmartMed clinic . The neurologist has extensive clinical experience and access to modern computer equipment. He will conduct a comprehensive diagnosis aimed at identifying the cause, and prescribe treatment, after which all unpleasant manifestations will disappear.

Treatment can only be effective when the cause of the noise is known.

You can’t tolerate noise in your head, engage in activities that provoke its increase, for example, skydiving, diving, etc. You need to give up bad habits, normalize rest and sleep, do everything to alleviate your condition.

Headache and noise diagnosis

Diagnosis plays an important role in the fight against noise in the head. One of the most crucial stages in the treatment of pathology is the establishment of the cause.

At the initial appointment, it is important for the neurologist to hear all the patient’s complaints. He studies the medical history, asks about recent head injuries, hearing problems, stress. After that, the neurologist examines the cervical region to determine areas of vascular compression, checks reflexes, and conducts motor tests to identify possible neurological disorders.

If, after studying the anamnesis, it becomes obvious that the ringing in the head arose due to diseases of the ENT organs or mental disorders, the patient is referred to an otolaryngologist or psychotherapist, respectively.

Diagnosis of noise in the head painless and safe

To make the correct diagnosis, instrumental and laboratory studies are required. Consider what examinations a doctor can prescribe for noise in the head:

  • otoscopy – microscopic examination of the ear and eardrum;
  • audiometry – involves measuring hearing acuity, determining auditory sensitivity to sounds of different frequencies;
  • MRI of the brain – shows tumors, stroke, ischemic zones, increased intracranial pressure and other problems;
  • CT or MRI of the cervical spine – informative for the diagnosis of osteochondrosis, hernia and protrusion , which lead to compression of arteries, nerve endings;
  • Ultrasound of cerebral vessels – helps to identify the cause of hypoxia (lack of oxygen), aneurysm, thrombosis and other vascular diseases;
  • MRI of the inner ear – shows neuritis, tumors, the consequences of the inflammatory process, age-related changes;
  • laboratory research – a clinical and biochemical blood test is prescribed.

Magnetic tomography is of great importance in the diagnosis of ringing in the ears and head. With its help, it is possible to identify any diseases of the brain, hearing organs, blood vessels, damage to the soft tissues of the head and neck, to assess the severity of the consequences of injuries. MRI can be done at the SmartMed clinic , where a modern MRI scanner is installed, which has a high resolution.

Head noise treatment

How to treat noises in the head, the doctor decides after the results of the examination are ready. A therapeutic scheme to reduce painful symptoms is developed based on the cause.

Noise can be treated using the following treatment methods:

  • Medical therapy. Medicines are prescribed by a doctor. These can be antibiotics, drugs for hypertension, brain vasodilators, blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, nootropics , and others.
  • Physiotherapy procedures. Eliminate the consequences of otitis, labyrinthitis, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. Effective laser therapy, electrophonophoresis , magnetotherapy, electrical stimulation, UHF, acupuncture, massage.
  • Physiotherapy. A complex of physical exercises is made up for diseases of the vessels, the spinal column.
  • Operation. If the tinnitus is caused by a neoplasm, then it needs to be removed.

Neurologists of the clinic ” SmartMed ” know all the modern methods of treating noise in the head, they prescribe the newest and most effective drugs.


All preventive measures are aimed at preventing vascular diseases, diseases of the brain and hearing organs. To prevent hypertension, hypoxia, atherosclerosis and other diseases, it is important to give up bad habits, eat right, maintain normal physical activity, since a sedentary lifestyle negatively affects the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

If the work involves a high level of noise, earplugs should be used to protect your hearing.

It is also necessary to avoid falls, stress, exposure to high-level noise, which can cause damage to the eardrum or neuritis of the auditory nerve. If you have any health problems, you should immediately go to the hospital.

When to see a doctor

Consultation with a neurologist is required even with a single episode of the appearance of noise, especially if it was accompanied by headache, dizziness, visual or hearing disorders. You should immediately go to the hospital if you experience the following problems:

  • ringing in the ears is sharp and loud;
  • tinnitus is accompanied by a severe headache;
  • together with a buzz in the head, it lays ears, hearing worsens;
  • there is stiffness of movements in the neck;
  • there are problems with maintaining balance, speech or visual disturbances, mental abilities are reduced, which may indicate a violation of cerebral circulation;
  • buzzing in the head is prolonged, affects the quality of life;
  • the noise is accompanied by a strong pulsation in the temporal region, the temples seem to be clamped in a vise.

Tinnitus can be a sign of a severe and sometimes life-threatening condition, so see your doctor as soon as it appears. Don’t wait to get worse.

Noise in the head – causes, diagnosis, treatment

Posted on May 21, 2022  in Uncategorized

Noise in the head, which often appears, not only affects performance and mental abilities, but also signals health problems. You can not leave such a symptom unattended, the cause of its occurrence will help to determine the specialist.

What diseases cause noise in the head?

There are many reasons for noise in the head and ears. It can occur due to severe overwork, insomnia, neurosis, stress, after excessive physical exertion, against the background of fever, medication, as well as diseases and traumatic brain injuries.

At risk for tinnitus are city transport drivers, factory and airport workers, and musicians.

What causes noise in the head? It can become a symptom of the following diseases:

  • neuritis of the auditory nerve, Meniere’s disease , otosclerosis, sensorineural hearing loss, otitis media, labyrinthitis and other pathologies of the auditory analyzer;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical region;
  • brain tumors;
  • atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmia, vegetovascular dystonia, as well as other diseases of the heart and blood vessels that lead to deterioration of cerebral circulation;
  • mental disorders;
  • endocrine diseases.

Tinnitus or ringing in the ears and head, according to statistics, feels about 10-15% of the world’s population. The frequency of its occurrence increases with age, as the likelihood of developing vascular and other diseases increases.

Let us consider in more detail what causes noise in the ears and head.


The main symptom of a migraine is a severe headache that affects one side of the head. In addition to it, the patient has visual disturbances, ringing in the ears.

Cervical osteochondrosis

The appearance of tinnitus and hum in the head, dizziness, headache, which pulsates in the temporal or occipital region, may be associated with compression of blood vessels in the neck and impaired circulation of the auditory analyzer, which occurs with cervical osteochondrosis.

Vascular diseases

The cause of a strong noise in the head and a throbbing headache can be an aneurysm or thrombosis of the cerebral vessels. These are life-threatening pathologies, against which a stroke and intracranial hemorrhage occur.

High pressure

The appearance of noise in the head due to increased pressure is associated with excessive filling of blood vessels. Other signs of hypertension include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and nausea. With strong pressure surges, there is a feeling of tingling in the region of the heart, bursting in the temples and fog in the head, vision deteriorates, flies appear before the eyes, a person may lose consciousness. In this case, you need to urgently call an ambulance.

In a hypertensive crisis, a person needs emergency medical care

Arterial hypertension is often accompanied by impaired cerebral circulation, which is why buzzing in the head occurs on an ongoing basis. If the pressure jumps often, it is necessary to undergo complex treatment. Otherwise, hypertension can provoke a heart attack or stroke, which are life-threatening.

Intracranial pressure

The occurrence of headache and noise in the head in an adult in the morning, after getting out of bed, is a sure sign of increased intracranial pressure. Other characteristic symptoms of the disease:

  • nausea;
  • vegetovascular dystonia;
  • fatigue, lethargy, decreased mental activity;
  • irritability;
  • dark circles under the eyes;
  • hearing loss;
  • increased sweating;
  • impaired consciousness from stunning to coma (in severe cases).

Headache with increased intracranial pressure is bursting. It is aggravated by lying down, by coughing or sneezing. During the day, when the person is upright, the symptoms gradually subside as the pressure decreases.


Pathologies of the blood vessels of the brain often lead to the occurrence of a throbbing headache and noise in the head. The most common cause is atherosclerosis. Due to the accumulation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels, their elasticity decreases. As a result, blood circulation is disturbed, a buzzing appears in the head, the patient hears something pulsating in the temples.

With age, there is a natural wear of the vessels of the brain and a decrease in the elasticity of their walls.

Pulsating noise occurs due to atherosclerotic narrowing, spasm of blood vessels. It is a sign of the passage of blood in a narrowed artery.

Thyroid problems

Endocrine disorders can adversely affect hearing. Noise or ringing in the head, ears – a symptom of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism. Concomitant signs of thyroid disease: drowsiness or insomnia, weight gain or loss, nervousness, irritability, forgetfulness, heart palpitations.

Other diseases

The appearance of noise in the head and ringing in the ears is most often associated with vascular diseases. If it is accompanied by a feeling of pressure, fullness in the head, severe headache and dizziness, balance disorders, then it should be examined for the presence of tumor processes.

Often, noise in the ears and head is a sign of diseases and injuries of the auditory analyzer. The main reasons include:

  • acute or chronic otitis media – inflammation of the middle ear;
  • sensorineural hearing loss – hearing loss due to damage to various parts of the auditory analyzer;
  • labyrinthitis – inflammation of the inner ear;
  • neuritis of the auditory nerve – accompanied by a violation of the transmission of impulses from the labyrinth to the brain;
  • otosclerosis – manifested by a violation of the mobility of the auditory ossicles in the middle ear;
  • Meniere’s disease – increased fluid pressure in the inner ear;
  • damage to the eardrum;
  • acoustic neuroma – a benign neoplasm;
  • age deafness.

In addition to ringing or humming, there is a feeling of congestion, fullness inside the ear, hearing problems, vestibular disorders, which include dizziness, nausea, and balance disorders.

The appearance of noise in the head and other sounds is sometimes associated with depression, neurasthenia and other disorders of the central nervous system. Diagnosis of these causes is difficult, since during the examination, organic disorders cannot be detected.

Less commonly, noise in the head occurs due to multiple sclerosis, diabetes, kidney disease, anemia.

Noises in the ears – a signal of a tumor

Posted on May 15, 2022  in Uncategorized

Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that leads to tinnitus and other symptoms: hearing loss on one side, pain and impaired movements of the mimic muscles of half of the face, speech impairment. With acoustic neuroma, the doctor prescribes surgical treatment or radiation therapy.

Many intracranial tumors lead to impaired cerebral circulation and increased intracranial pressure. Therefore, tinnitus can also be one of the symptoms of such pathologies.

Multiple sclerosis

It is a chronic disease that most often occurs between the ages of 15 and 40. All nerve fibers in the human body are covered with a special myelin sheath. It is necessary for the normal transmission of nerve impulses. In multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath is destroyed, resulting in slow neuromuscular transmission.

The symptoms of multiple sclerosis are varied. In some people, the disease manifests itself in the form of numbness of a certain part of the body, for example, a limb, while others develop severe paralysis up to respiratory failure.

One of the possible symptoms of multiple sclerosis is tinnitus.

Depression and neuroses

Under certain conditions of the nervous system, the organ of hearing acquires an increased sensitivity to sounds, and its irritation occurs. This often leads to depression, neurosis (neurasthenia, hysterical neurosis), nervous breakdowns. The patient comes to the doctor’s office and complains of constant tinnitus, but during the examination and examination, no objective violations are detected.

With psychogenic tinnitus, psychotherapy and appropriate medications are prescribed.

Taking medication for tinnitus

Some medications are ototoxic – they can damage nerve endings in the inner ear and cause tinnitus. This side effect is most pronounced in the following drugs:

  • antimalarials (quinine) and some antibiotics (eg streptomycin);
  • anti-inflammatory drugs (including aspirin);
  • antipsychotics (haloperidol);
  • antidepressants;
  • digitalis preparations;
  • furosemide.

If during the course of one of these drugs you begin to be bothered by tinnitus, you should stop taking it and immediately consult a doctor.

Only a doctor, based on the results of the examination and examinations, will establish which disease led to the occurrence of tinnitus. It is necessary to start the correct treatment of this symptom as early as possible in any pathology – this will help eliminate its root cause, prevent serious complications.

Experienced neurologists, therapists, cardiologists work in the Yusupov hospital, and there is all the necessary equipment . This allows us to provide patients with modern high- quality medical care.

Treating noise in the head and ears

Some diseases are accompanied by such an unpleasant phenomenon for a person as noise in the ears and head. Sometimes it is barely noticeable – the patient simply does not pay attention to it. But in some cases, the noise is constant, intense, painful, disrupts sleep – the sick person becomes anxious, irritable, trying with all his might to understand why he is so ill. You can answer the question of how to treat noise in the head by understanding the causes of this symptom, since approaches to therapy are different in different clinical situations.

Classification of noise in the head and ears

Due to the variety of variants of noise, they were classified – combined into groups, common for the causes of occurrence or features of the course of the disease.

EPFowler (1947) identified two types of tinnitus:

  • objective, or vibratory (occurs as a result of vibrations of any parts of the body, exists in reality, can be recorded using a phonendoscope or the use of other diagnostic methods);
  • subjective , or non- vibratory (felt by a person, but does not take place in reality, there is no source of hum in real life; it cannot be assessed from the outside; it is also called the term ” tinnitus “).

In their practice, doctors apply the classification of noise by reason and distinguish:

  • noise of the external, middle ear;
  • muscular;
  • vascular;
  • central;
  • peripheral noise.

Depending on the quality characteristics, there are:

  • one-sided or two-sided;
  • pulsating or monotonous;
  • arising from time to time or present constantly;
  • low-frequency hum or high-frequency squeak, ringing;
  • barely noticeable or strong, intense noise.


Noises in a person’s head are not always a symptom of pathology. A lot of sounds occur in our body in the process of its life – with blood flow, movement of joints, contraction and relaxation of muscles. They are masked by other sounds present around us and seem invisible to us, and in conditions of complete silence we can pay attention to them.

However, in most situations, extraneous noise, hum and other sounds in the head or ears are a sign of a pathological condition and a reason to contact a specialist.

Vibratory noise is caused by:

  • diseases of the temporomandibular joint;
  • neuromuscular diseases (the gaping of the auditory tube, myoclonus of the muscles of the soft palate, middle ear);
  • vascular changes (valvular heart disease, narrowing of the arteries, vein problems, arteriovenous shunts).

Subjective noise may be based on:

  • metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, atherosclerosis);
  • neoplasms of the brain;
  • neuroma of the VIII pair of cranial nerves;
  • diseases of the organ of hearing (sulfur plug, otitis media, sensorineural hearing loss, labyrinthitis, neoplasms, Meniere’s disease , injuries);
  • damage by toxic substances (drugs that have a toxic effect on the organ of hearing, methyl alcohol and others);
  • diseases of the spine (degenerative-dystrophic changes, instability, etc.);
  • neurological diseases (acute and chronic disorders of cerebral circulation, multiple sclerosis, neurocirculatory (vegetovascular) dystonia);
  • hypertonic disease;
  • mental disorders (neurasthenia and other neurotic disorders, depression, schizophrenia);
  • exposure to noise and vibration at work;
  • craniocerebral injuries (bruises, brain contusions).

Shpidonov Gennady Stanislavovich

Rostov State Medical University (neurology)

Strong, loud noise

It occurs in persons suffering from pathology at the level of the inner ear – the cochlea. It is experienced by people who have received a concussion, but the noise is accompanied by severe dizziness, significant hearing loss, and vomiting. Myogenic noise, the source of which is the muscles, can also be loud. It reminds patients of the chirping of a grasshopper, the crunch of snow, often heard even by others.

Noise and whistle

These symptoms occur with inflammation of the Eustachian tube – eustachitis . They can accompany bouts of dizziness in Meniere’s disease , occur in people who have undergone surgery on the stirrup for otosclerosis as a result of the development of consequences – postoperative complications.

Headache and noise

Such sensations in the ears are often noted in people with pathology in the cervical spine, suffering from chronic circulatory disorders in the brain.

Buzz in the head

It can also be the norm if it appears when a person is in a noisy environment (on a street with active traffic, in a crowded place, in a noisy production) and after returning to a quiet place gradually, within two hours, passes. Sometimes it manifests itself as a side effect of a number of drugs – antidepressants, anticancer drugs, certain antibiotics and NSAIDs. It can also occur in the postoperative period during operations on the organ of hearing – in this situation, it is the result of interference with the apparatus that conducts sounds, and after a while it passes on its own.

Ear congestion and noise in the head

Often, such symptoms are noted when there is a sulfuric plug in the ear that clogs the ear canal. They also occur with traumatic injury, acute inflammation or an allergic process in the outer or middle ear. In children, congestion is caused by adenoiditis – inflammation of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx. Due to the fact that already in adolescence the tonsil undergoes reverse development, for adult patients this cause of congestion and noise in the ear is not relevant.

Constant, chronic noise in the head

More often than others, it is noted in elderly patients. In them, it is a consequence of several chronic causes at the same time – atherosclerosis and hypertension, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, diabetes and others. All these pathological conditions, acquired by a person over the years, exacerbate each other and lead to chronic circulatory disorders in the brain, resulting in a constant buzzing noise, high-frequency ringing, whistling or buzzing in the head.

Diagnosis and treatment of noise in the head

When this unpleasant symptom appears, you should not waste time doing self-diagnosis, trying to cope with it yourself or hoping that “it will pass like that”. The correct decision of the patient is to seek help from a specialist.

Diagnosis of diseases accompanied by noise in the head is carried out by doctors of various profiles – therapists, otolaryngologists, neurologists, psychotherapists / psychiatrists. But most often, patients with such a problem turn first of all to a neurologist.

First of all, the task of the doctor is to specify the noise, to understand what exactly the patient feels – a high-frequency squeak, ringing, buzzing, buzzing or hum, one- or two-sided, accompanied by a pulsation or not; clarify the intensity of sensations and the symptoms that they could be accompanied by. If the patient does not tell himself, the doctor will ask leading questions about whether there is hearing loss, stuffiness in the ears, headache (usually occipital) pain, a tendency to increase or decrease in blood pressure, find out what somatic diseases the person who applied to him for an appointment suffers from human. Based on these data, the specialist will suggest what type of tinnitus he is dealing with – objective or subjective. Then he will conduct an objective examination – examine the organ of hearing, perform a number of tests necessary for making a diagnosis.