Vegetative disorders in depression

Posted on May 7, 2021  in Uncategorized

In time of depression there are a variety of vegetative disorders – tive nervous system: sweating, fluctuations in blood pressure, palpitations, dry mouth, fatigue, insomnia , tremor, disorders of intestinal activity and approx. Patients often cold, he did not can keep warm, freezing the tips of the fingers ( maybe this is why depressed patients have a desire to stand for a long time under a hot shower or take a warm bath).         

Depression is accompanied by disturbances in the circadian rhythm. Hence the Wuxi – Lenie severity of the symptoms of depression in a certain time period. Previously it was thought that the symptoms of depression is usually worse in the first sexual – not a single day (80% of patients with depression), but in recent years suggest that the circadian rhythm of depression depends on the individual biological characteristics of the patient man.      

Typically, depression disrupts a person’s sex life . Snee – zhaetsya libido, impaired erection, the sensation of orgasm. In women disrupted menstrual cycle, sometimes monthly fully pre – clearly reduced.   

During the period of depression, the digestive system suffers. Decreases or completely disappears appetite. However, in rare cases, it even intensifies – as a rule, in relation to certain products. It is no coincidence that bulimia is often accompanied by symptoms of depression (a person “seizes melancholy”) and is treated with antidepressants . During depression, many say that ” food has lost its taste”, it becomes like “grass”. The resulting weakness makes it difficult to go to the grocery stores , choose them, cook and eat, and the thought of food even causes nausea.                  

A common symptom of depression, especially in old age – resistant for – pores, flatulence, pain in the abdomen. A person noticeably loses weight or less often, on the contrary, having begun to eat abundantly, he gains weight.    

Changes in appetite in people who, in addition to depression, suffer from bodily diseases – peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus – can complicate the course of the latter.   

Heart rhythm disorders – often “on – wet on depression” with the cardiovascular system.   

Sometimes breathing problems arise : a person feels a lack of air, incomplete inhalation. Breathing is slow.  

Frequent companions of depression – a different kind of pain : headache (Chuv – GUSTs heaviness in the head), in the neck, the back, joints, and other frequently encountered in the field of past wounds, traces of the operation. This may be changed and the very perception of pain: she seems stronger, has a special character, it becomes unbearable and the reception for by reducing sensitivity to pain – STI. Note that chronic pain syndrome also successfully treats – Xia antidepressants. 

Atypical depression

Posted on May 1, 2021  in Uncategorized

Atypical depression is a form of depressive disorder characterized by anxiety, excessive sleepiness, increased appetite, and changes in weight. Atypical depression is difficult to treat.   

Symptoms of atypical depression

A diagnosis of this depressive disorder requires at least 5 signs.  

The following symptoms are characteristic of atypical depression:

  •  sadness
  •  decrease in energy potential
  •  feeling of hopelessness and worthlessness 
  •  loss of the ability to enjoy activities you love 
  •  difficulty concentrating and making decisions  
  •  tearfulness
  •  irritability
  •  excessive sleepiness
  •  insomnia
  •  pain for no reason
  •  toothache
  •  digestive disorders
  •  low sex drive
  •  sexual dysfunction
  •  headache
  •  changes in appetite
  •  weight loss or gain
  •  obsessive thoughts of death and suicide  
  •  injury to health, attempted suicide

Atypical depression is widespread. Experiments and studies are being conducted to find out if a given depression is a subtype of the mildest type of depression , dysthymia. This type of depression lasts for at least two years. There is also an opinion that atypical depression is a milder form of bipolar disorder, also called a manic-depressive episode.     

Causes of atypical depression

It is believed that the development of atypical depression occurs as a result of a chemical imbalance in the cerebral cortex. The chemical elements neurotransmitters responsible for allowing brain cells to communicate with each other include dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The causes of atypical depression have not been fully identified. The main causes of atypical depression are distinguished:      

  •  grief , loss in life (death of a loved one, separation, divorce) 
  •  genetic factor
  •  interpersonal incidents, resulting in feelings of guilt  
  •  violence (sexual, bodily, or sensual)
  •  an important event in life (moving, changing or losing a job, completing school or university, retirement)    
  •  serious illness
  •  alcohol or drug addiction 
  •  leaving the family. 

Treatment for atypical depression

In the treatment of atypical depression, it is recommended to use antidepressants that give quick results. Some drugs can have a negative effect on the body, so you need to follow a special diet.  

Exercise for depression

Posted on April 26, 2021  in Uncategorized

Exercise for depression is free, healthy, and absolutely free of any side defects. Exercise has been shown to help prevent potential bouts of depression, as decreased mobility is one of the manifestations of a depressive state.      

Exercises that improve oxygen metabolism (jogging, swimming, riding a bike), and so the heavy lifting can significantly alleviate depression mild or moderate or enhance the effectiveness of the treatment of severe.   

Even a walk can bring tangible benefits. Exercise combined with psychotherapy and / or medication can help you cope with depression much faster. Another point is important here : the effect of exercise can be long-term. So, in the course of the experiments, it was found that people who regularly exercise, even after seven years, reduced anxiety and depression.         

Why is exercise beneficial?

  • They distract a person from the experiences typical of a depressive disorder.  
  • Exercise for depression increases self-esteem: a sense of accomplishment, winning a round of sports, etc. make a person successful.  
  • Exercises involving group / pair activities (dance, aerobics) reduce feelings of isolation.
  • Physical activity with access to nature harmonizes the inner state of a person: even a walk in the forest / park or weeding garden beds in the country can give a feeling of satisfaction.    
  • On a biological level, physical activity helps release those chemicals ( endorphins ) in the brain that lift your mood and even reduce pain.   

How much time to spend on exercise for depression?

It is enough to do exercises that improve oxygen metabolism only 2-5 times a week for 30-40 minutes. Do not start with such a load right away – increase it gradually. None of the exercises are effective if they feel too hard. You can start simply by walking. Most people with depressive disorder are difficult to get up, so start small.               

Drug-free treatment for depression

Posted on April 20, 2021  in Uncategorized

Depression responds fairly well to treatment. About 80% of patients who received appropriate effective treatment recovered from depression completely. Non-drug treatment is an essential part of the treatment of this disorder and is usually carried out through psychotherapy. The following methods are used to treat depression without medication:   

  •  Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy – lectures, trainings, assignments, keeping an observation diary, monitoring your state and well-being. With this therapy, a person learns to control his behavior and change it;   
  •  Art therapy. Art therapy . This includes drawing, modeling, music, cinema therapy . This method contributes to the displacement of the patient’s experiences; 
  •  Body-oriented psychotherapy treats depression through contact with the body; 
  •  Transactional analysis – description and analysis of human behavior;  
  •  Special breathing exercises;
  •  Psychoanalysis. Dealing with experiences related to childhood, mental trauma;  
  •  Existential-humanistic psychotherapy. The psychologist helps to characterize your lifestyle, identifies the features of building relationships with others, assists in changing your behavior and lifestyle;   
  •  Gestalt therapy – is based on the principles of focusing consciousness on reality;   
  •  Neuro Linguistic Programming;
  •  Psychological counseling;
  •  Hypnotherapy;
  •  Light therapy .

Light therapy , aimed at changing the violation of the patient’s biological rhythms , is very effective . Researchers have shown that biological rhythms can be changed by exposure to high-intensity light. It turns out that bright and prolonged exposure to light has a positive effect on the centers of circadian rhythms, there is an inhibition of melatonin secretion in the pineal gland, a change in the concentration of cortisol and ACTH in the patient’s blood, synthesis of catecholamines, and a sympathicotonic and parasympathicotonic effect. Thus, there is a fight against the symptoms of the disease. To obtain the desired therapeutic effect, a room illumination of at least 2600 lux is required . The required illumination is achieved by using incandescent lamps, which are located on the ceiling of the room at a height of about 2.5 m. As a rule, 27 incandescent lamps of 200 W are used. It has been proven that the effectiveness of treatment increases if the walls of the treatment room are painted white or green, with maximum body exposure. Before prescribing this treatment, the patient is thoroughly examined. During the session, patients can freely walk around the room. The positive effect of therapy depends on the intensity of the regulatory function of the cerebral cortex and the stabilization of the activity of the autonomic system. For the treatment of this disorder , special tabletop devices are used.                       

Since depression is very difficult to cope on their own, especially when it comes to these forms of depression as severe. Therefore, if you feel that you are starting to get sick, contact a qualified specialist. The variety of methods allows you to effectively deal with the symptoms of the disorder, and thorough diagnostics contributes to successful treatment.      

Post-alcohol depression

Posted on April 14, 2021  in Uncategorized

Alcoholic drinks have a destructive effect on the body and all processes occurring in it. Mental conditions that occur after prolonged abuse are often temporary, such as post-alcoholic depression.   

Alcoholism destroys a person physically and morally, personality degradation occurs. Very often, an alcoholic patient tries to cope with depression with the help of a well-known method – drinking a new dose of alcohol, as a result, the person finds himself in a vicious circle. In the case when this depression appears in a person who does not suffer from alcoholism, but who has consumed a large dose of alcohol, such depression is treated rather quickly.  
          
 

Symptoms of post-alcoholic depression

The main signs of post-alcoholic depression are:

  •  The patient is depressed all the time ; 
  •  He has a depressed mood; 
  •  The patient is inactive;
  •  Inhibition of cognitive functions occurs;
  •  The person has decreased mental reactions; 
  •  The patient feels guilty;
  •  His instinct for self-preservation is dulled; 
  •  Suicidal tendencies appear;
  •  A person is not capable of experiencing pleasure in life, nothing pleases him;   
  •  The patient does not see the meaning of life. 

Often, post-alcoholic depression is accompanied by acute manic-depressive psychosis, as well as other types of depression. Only a qualified specialist will be able to help a patient with post-alcoholic depression, therefore, if you see signs of this disorder, do not delay, consult a doctor.    

Treatment of post-alcoholic depression

The patient’s refusal to consume alcoholic beverages contributes to the most effective treatment of post-alcoholic depression. At the beginning of treatment, consultation with the patient’s relatives is necessary .   

Treatment of post-alcoholic depression is carried out with the help of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy. The final stage of treatment is the social rehabilitation of the patient.  

Pharmacological treatment consists in the use of modern antidepressants, which relieve symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, and guilt. The patient’s mood and self-esteem improves, and the general condition improves. However, after drug withdrawal, many factors can trigger a relapse of alcohol dependence and associated depression.      

Treatment with drugs takes place in combination with psychotherapy: individual, group, and family. The main goal of psychotherapy is to form a correct attitude towards life, the patient learns to live and enjoy life without alcohol, and establishes new connections.        

Hypnotic psychotherapy is often used in the treatment of post-alcoholic depression. During hypnosis, the specialist instills an aversion to alcohol. 

Ancillary treatments for post-alcoholic depression include: 

  •  Physiotherapy;
  •  Manual therapy;
  •  Acupuncture;

These methods help to improve and stabilize the state of the nervous system, overcome chronic fatigue and depression, improve overall physical condition, and also activate the body’s defenses.   

Anxious depression

Posted on April 8, 2021  in Uncategorized

At present, many people are more likely to mention in themselves signs of anxious depression : depressed mood, feeling of anxiety, fear of the future and uncertainty.    

Anxiety depression occupies a special place among depressive disorders. According to research data, anxiety is felt by about 90% of all people with depression. Therefore, the treatment of anxious depression takes a special place in psychotherapeutic practice.     

Signs of anxiety depression

Anxious experiences entail a whole range of mental and physiological disorders in the body, among them:   

  •  Sad, depressed mood;
  •  Loss of interest in everyday activities, inability to enjoy your favorite activities;  
  •  Feeling of anxiety, expressed anxiety; 
  •  Sleep is disturbed, insomnia appears;
  •  The person feels weakness, loss of energy;
  •  He gets tired quickly, activity during the day is reduced;  
  •  Difficulty in concentration
  •  A person is fussy when performing any actions;
  •  Concentration of attention is impaired;
  •  Excitement is observed in movements and speech;  
  •  Appetite is impaired;
  •  The person is noticeably tense and worried; 
  •  He is irritable; 
  •  The appearance of a tremor;
  •  Rapid pulse;
  •  Dizziness;
  •  The patient has thoughts of suicide;  
  •  Decreased libido.

Also, this disorder is characterized by fears of the dark, of strangers, fear of loneliness, animals, crowds; Women consider themselves guilty, sinful, unlucky.

In the international classification of mental races – stroystv allocate separate mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. By its manifestations traditionally include suspense, a sense of threat, repetitive anxious thoughts, irritation – zhitelnost, difficulties with the bustling center , a sleep disorder, and autonomic nervous system. Very often, anxiety is combined with severe fatigue, loss of interests. Some researchers believe that anxiety is largely due to a person’s personality traits, and melancholy and apathy are biological in nature. This disorder (along with panic attacks and phobias ) is accompanied by depression in more than 40% of cases. Very often when depression – connects to agoraphobia (an obsessive fear of open spaces) and social phobia (obsessive fear of crowd).                

When anxiety and any symptoms of anxious depression appear, you need to contact a qualified specialist who will find out the causes of the disease and prescribe an effective treatment.   

Anxiety Depression Treatment

In the treatment of anxiety depression, such a method as cognitive-behavioral therapy is becoming especially effective . This method is based on the correct perception of the situation by the person in which he finds himself. This method is aimed at correcting the perception of the world, thinking and behavior.       

Anxiety depression therapy takes place in several stages: 

  •  identifying negative thoughts that cause anxiety;
  •  analysis of thoughts and their assessment by a specialist;  
  •  their replacement with constructive ones;  
  •  improving the quality of life, eliminating the factors that provoked depression.

Autumn depression

Posted on April 2, 2021  in Uncategorized

With the arrival of autumn, a difficult time of the year begins for 17-20% of people. There is a depressed mood, a loss of interest in favorite activities, a breakdown.

This mood is a sign of autumn depression, a type of seasonal depressive disorder. Autumn depression often occurs in women aged 20-59, single people, residents of northern latitudes. During this period of time, the mood is influenced by a waning day, cloudy weather, precipitation. But one should not think that depression occurs only in autumn and is associated with the weather. Natural factors trigger depression, but seasonal depressive disorder has many molecular and genetic causes. There is a hereditary predisposition to depression, which consists in dysregulation of the stress axis – the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands. Imbalance of neurotransmitters – serotonin, dopamine, glutamate , gamma- amino oilacid leads to disruption of the processes of excitation-inhibition, neuroplasticity in the brain. And ultimately depression is the result.

Childhood trauma is also a cause of depression.

Autumn depression. Symptoms

The main signs of an autumn depression are as follows:

  • long-term bad mood;
  • yearning;
  • fear ;
  • anxiety;
  • passivity;
  • fatigue;
  • insomnia;
  • sudden mood swings.
  • the appearance of thoughts of hopelessness, uselessness of existence;
  • violation of concentration of attention;
  • difficulties in making decisions;
  • decreased memory;
  • violation of appetite;
  • decreased sex drive;
  • inability to perform work and necessary affairs;
  • overeating;
  • the desire for loneliness;
  • irritability.

If you find symptoms of autumn depression in yourself or your loved ones, then you need to contact a specialist, since depression can end with a suicide attempt. Remember autumn depression is not only a bad mood due to the weather, troubles, stress, but a disease that has biological causes. Autumn depression can be mild or severe, and the treatment and prevention of the disease, the choice of the form of therapy, prognosis and prospects depend on it. healing.

How to get rid of autumn depression

Autumn depression does not go away on its own and causes a lot of problems for a person and others. Lifestyle and nutritional changes can help reduce symptoms. Upot reblyayte to eat lots of fruits and vegetables, foods contributing to the production of serotonin – bananas, citrus fruits, dates. We must not forget about meat and dairy products that serve as a source of nonessential and irreplaceable amino acids that are part of neurotransmitters . Adding turmeric to your meals is effective in treating autumn depression. Natural chocolate is a remedy against depression. And grapefruit helps to alleviate symptoms of depression, improves mood and ability to work. It is necessary to replace tea or coffee with decoctions of thyme, mint, linden. The medicinal plant Kalanchoe helps to get rid of depression, as it affects the balance of serotonin, norepinephrine.

For depression, jogging, walking, playing sports, swimming in the pool, and a contrast shower are effective. If possible, you should spend time outdoors and in the sun. Lighting at home and at work needs to be intensified. In order to prevent insomnia, limit yourself to the use of computers, cell phones.

2 hours before bed, do not watch TV, do not use the Internet, and turn off your cell phone. Classical music, reading books on paper, communicating with nice people, contribute to a good mood. And humor and laughter reduce the production of stress hormones – adrenaline and cortisol. Autumn depression can go away when the reaction to certain negative events and stresses changes.

But, we repeat, the symptoms of autumn depression are still signs of the disease, so it is necessary to consult a specialist if a change in lifestyle and nutrition does not lead to an improvement in the condition.

Depression. Medication treatment

Treatment with pharmacological drugs is used for moderate to severe autumn depression. Before prescribing the drug, a thorough examination of all organs is carried out to select the minimum active dosage in order to avoid the toxic effect of the drug. Usually one drug is prescribed, which makes it easier to tolerate.

For the treatment of depression are used:

  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors;
  • dual-acting antidepressants;
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitors ;
  • tricyclic, tetracyclic antidepressants;
  • antipsychotics;
  • normotimics ;
  • antihypoxants .

Depression. Psychotherapy treatment

Psychotherapy is an indispensable element of fall depression therapy. It allows you to reduce the duration of drug treatment, to acquire the skills of self-control over emotions, behavior, reactions. The following types of psychotherapy are used to treat depression:

  • cognitive -behavioral, based on the analysis of human behavior, the formation of skills to assess the situation, the acquisition of the ability to self-control, emotion management;
  • existential, allowing you to understand the life meaning of a depressive state, build a new attitude to your own problems;
  • interpersonal – the basis of which is work with the state of “here and now,” which makes it possible to build a constructive model of communication with people, to acquire skills in problem solving.

Depression Non-drug treatment.

The drug-free treatment of depression has several advantages over pharmacotherapy in that it simulates the natural physical mechanisms that promote recovery. These treatments are:

  • transcranial magnetic stimulation is the effect of a magnetic field on the brain in order to activate or suppress neurons involved in the development of depression;
  • biofeedback – contributes to the acquisition of self-regulation skills and control of their reactions;
  • phototherapy in blue and near infrared – regulates the cycles of sleep and wakefulness;
  • intravenous laser irradiation – increases sensitivity to drugs, has a beneficial effect on the blood;
  • focused ultrasound – activates neurons, and promotes the penetration of the drug into the brain.

Autumn depression is a condition that can be corrected and treated. Just pay attention to your bad mood, do not think that it will go away by itself when the situation changes, it can be a manifestation of seasonal depressive disorder and require specialist intervention.

Depression in schizophrenia

Posted on March 27, 2021  in Uncategorized

Depression can occur at any stage of development of schizophrenia: precede the manifestation of attack, complicating early diagnosis, included in a complex structure psychosis attack syndrome appear as relief of psychosis in the step of forming remission
after the first psychotic episode undoubtedly in the pathogenesis of the disease are, in addition to endogenous, and reactive- personal mechanisms. And in this case, active
psychological support of the patient is especially necessary (psychotherapy, psychosocial therapy), whose “targets” are individual personality traits – coping , psychological defense, perfectionism , and self-stigmatization .
The study was conducted on the basis of the department of the first episode of psychosis (PPE) of the Orenburg Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital No. 1. We examined 238 patients with schizophrenia with a disease duration of no more than 5 years, having no more than 3 attacks at the stage of recovery from psychosis. Taking into account the presence or absence of postpsychotic depression, patients were divided into PPD groups (presence of depression) – 118 patients and OD (no depression) – 120 patients. Depressive status, objectified, in addition to the clinical method, the Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) – 6 points or more.
The clinical and psychopathological method is supplemented by the symptomatic questionnaire SCL-90-R, which is filled in by the patient. Patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years, with a history of more than 3 psychotic attacks, with a malignant course of schizophrenia, with somatoneurological pathology, accompanied by severe dysfunction of the affected
system, concomitant alcohol and / or drug addiction were excluded from the study .
To study individual personality traits, the methods of diagnostics of perfectionism by Garanyan- Kholmogorova, coping of SVF and E. Heim , self – stigmatization – SS (Yastrebov et al., 2004), psychological defense – Kellerman-Plutchik were used . The indicators of the Calgary scale of the PPD group (7.63 + 1.59) significantly exceed the data for the OD group (1.73 + 1.67), and a more pronounced subjective experience of distress in patients with depression was also established . In the syndromic profile, according to the SCL-90-R results, the leading in patients with depression are anxiety-depressive disorders with interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive thoughts, primarily in relation to the return of the psychotic state, or in relation to the immediate future after discharge from the clinic. The anxiety-depressive status of patients can be explained by the “reactive” component of experiences, which determines the acquisition of criticality to the past psychosis, along with preserved evaluative resources of the personality at the early stage of schizophrenia. The indices of perfectionism in the PPD group for all the studied factors of the questionnaire significantly exceed those in patients without depression, which reflects the significance of this personality trait for the development of postpsychotic depression. Self-stigmatization is significantly expressed in the PPD group (a general indicator. Among the forms of SS in the PPD group, the leading is socioreversive (40.69 + 21.94), then autopsychic and compensatory. In the OA group, the leading form of SS is also socioreversive , but, unlike the group PPD is followed by, almost in equal severity, compensatory (25.34 + 14.3) and autopsychic forms of SS. These data indicate a greater severity of experiences in relation to the consequences of the disease in patients with PPD. In the structure of psychological defense, the indicators in the group are significantly higher PPD (in descending order of severity) by regression, reactive formations, displacement, replacement, projection In the OA group, the leading in the profile and reliably exceeding in the PPD group, the denial indicator The data on the coping structure are somewhat contradictory . maladaptive coping in the behavioral sphere in the group of patients with depression, which may reflect, on the one hand, the safety ь adaptive behavioral potential, on the other hand, some ambitiousness of the behavioral sphere, defining the “targets” of psychotherapy. On the contrary, in the cognitive and emotional spheres in patients with PPD, the maladaptive orientation of coping is more pronounced . Coping structure is determined by the relationship with the depressive status using self-blame, humility, confusion, submissiveness, suppression of emotions, avoidance tendencies, social encapsulation, mental stuck – maladaptive options, and compensation, substitutionary satisfaction, self-compassion — a relatively adaptive option. At the same time, according to SVF data, in the coping structure of patients with PPD, the need for social support is urgent, the search for alternative self-affirmation is resource coping . The study shows, along with the predominant maladaptive orientation of individual personality traits of patients with postpsychotic depression in the first episode of schizophrenia, in contrast to patients without depression, the presence of an adaptive personal resource in depressed patients, primarily in the coping structure. This indicates the need for active psychotherapeutic support of patients with postpsychotic depression with an emphasis in short-term treatment and rehabilitation programs on cognitive- behavioral methods. The preferential use of cognitive -povedencheskoy therapy at the Division of first psychotic episode Orenburg already shown to be effective as a therapy in the short and in the long catamnesis (up to 10 years).

The biological basis of depression in schizophrenia

Posted on March 21, 2021  in Uncategorized

From modern positions, depression is considered as an unfavorable factor in the course of schizophrenia. To a large extent, this is determined by an increased risk of suicide and a deterioration in therapeutic sensitivity. But the question of the influence of depression on the course of the schizophrenic process remains open. In studying this problem, a modern approach is relevant, involving the consideration of schizophrenia and affective disorder from the standpoint of brain degeneration. From this point of view, it is of interest to analyze the level of BDNF, which can act as a marker of this process. BDNF promotes the growth and development of immature neurons, improves adult neuron survival and function, and helps maintain synapse connections. Experimental studies have shown the relationship of BDNF with the main transmitters involved in the development of mental pathology.

Studies of neurotrophic factors, in particular BDNF, were of particular interest and led to the formation of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression. There is now much less research and more conflicting results regarding the relationship between BDNF levels and schizophrenia. Most of the research is focused on studying the relationship of BDNF with ongoing therapy. In the study of psychiatrists from the Institute. V.M. Ankylosing spondylitis included 25 inpatients. All patients met the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia (F20) and were hospitalized for exacerbated mental illness. The study did not include patients with organic brain disease (severe trauma, history of stroke, etc.), as well as with severe somatic pathology in the acute stage. Patients were examined twice, at admission and after 4-6 weeks of therapy. The survey was comprehensive and included clinical psychopathological, laboratory and psychometric methods. In schizophrenic patients, the Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The BDNF level was measured using the Rand Dsystems EL ISAs test system (R&D systems , USA) based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood sampling to determine the level of cortisol was carried out strictly in the morning. The quantitative determination of the concentration of cortisol in the serum of patients was carried out on an automatic immunochemical analyzer Access-2 (manufactured by Beckman Coulter , USA) using chemiluminescence immunoassay using paramagnetic particles. On the basis of the CDSS scale, two samples were made – 15 patients at the time of the first examination had depressive symptoms in the structure of a schizophrenic attack and 10 patients without signs of depression. The groups were comparable in age. The BDNF level in patients with depressive symptoms is significantly lower than in patients without depression. In turn, the level of cortisol in depressed patients is significantly higher. The obtained data on a significant decrease in the level of BDNF in the serum in the presence of depression in patients with schizophrenia indicates the severity of neurodegenerative processes in this category of patients. This may be due to the neurotoxic effects of cortisol.

Exogenous and endogenous depression

Posted on March 15, 2021  in Uncategorized

Depression is an increasingly commonly diagnosed mental disorder. Suffer from depression are not only adults, but and children (in the past, according to the modern classification of diseases, it is called a depressive disorder or conduct as cyclothymia). And depression really is not just a “bad mood” or a reaction to life difficulties (although it can be provoked by them) – it is a disease that has clearly defined criteria and requires complex treatment.               

Previously, it was believed that a pronounced manifestation of two of the triad of signs was sufficient to define a depressive disorder : 

  1. decreased mood,
  2. motor retardation, 
  3. mental retardation.

The described triad is a classic depressive symptom complex : a depressed person has a persistently low mood background, his movements are slowed down, and mental activity is lower than usual.  

However, from a modern point of view, depression is a much broader concept. In modern classifiers, the criteria for diagnosing depression stand out much more, and they include both psychiatric itself and neurological, therapeutic, psychological symptoms.   

The division into endogenous and exogenous depression, which once existed in domestic practice, is not so popular today , since the definition of endogenous depression is very contradictory. The essence of such a division lies in the name itself: “endogenous” means “internal”, originating “from within”. That is, the development of endogenous depression is based not on external causes (for example, very severe stress), but on some internal ones. Sometimes, this concept can be used to describe a depressive symptom complex , with its inherent decreased mood, tolerance to environmental stimuli, daily mood swings, sleep disorders and early involuntary awakenings, severe inhibition. Sometimes signs of endogenous depression are complaints of bodily malaise: most often these are chest pains that have a completely precise localization. It is in view of the last moment, of the listed symptoms, that people suffering from depressive disorders, most often, first of all, come to general practitioners for help . Is it worth it to say that the prescribed symptomatic treatment in this case does not bring the expected relief at all …                             

Exogenous depression is a disorder caused by circumstances or events in the external environment. Not whether the external stimulus of the disorder could be and not happen. However, sometimes it develops so that, having arisen initially as exogenous, depression receives its further development regardless of external causes, becoming already an endogenous state. And depression, which meets the criteria of endogeneity , develops against the background of external stress factors (after all, few modern people are completely free from stressful experiences and various shocks).            

Thus, exogenous and endogenous depression is an attempt to classify this group of disorders according to their genesis (origin, nature of causes). In addition, according to the classifier, depressions are subdivided according to their severity into mild ( subdepression ), moderate (moderate) and severe.         

One way or another, regardless of the cause that served as the source of the development of depression, at the slightest suspicion of its development , you should seek specialized professional help. It is better if it is a psychiatrist – a specialist who is able to accurately determine the correct diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribe an effective treatment. Remember: depression is a deadly disease. It is she who is the cause of 70% of suicides committed in the world.