Social networks provokes the development of depression

Posted on January 2, 2020  in Uncategorized

A group of American experts, after conducting a scientific experiment, was able to determine why depression appears. According to experts, social networks have a strong negative impact on adolescents.
Scientists have found that even one week spent on social networks significantly increases the level of depression. And there are several reasons for this.

According to experts, active users may appear envy, in particular, to subscribers. This can even happen because while sitting at home discouraged from boredom, people look at photos of others and vacationers in warm countries.

Another important problem for modern users is low self-esteem, as well as a sporting sense of inferiority. This can be triggered even by the fact that the user’s photos put few likes.

It is precisely because of these reasons that the negative impact of social networks on the mood of a person, especially adolescents, who are too emotional about every little thing, is made.

Clinical Depression

Clinical depression is a kind of change in the brain, which leads to a deterioration in mood, lasting for several months. Chemical compounds called neurotransmitters, which include dopamine and serotonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine, are frustrated in their work, in other words, they are unable to fulfill their main function – the transmission of brain impulses to nerve cells. Clinical depression is a feeling of depression and sadness, a lack of appetite, a decrease in sexual desire and arousal, a memory disorder, and constant fatigue.

Clinical depression is characterized by such phenomena as:

– a feeling of utter hopelessness and own weakness. Any, even not very difficult situation, begins to be regarded as having no solution and no way out.

– A sharp decline in interest in daily affairs. Cases and things that used to always interest a person, gave him pleasure, no longer attract him, do not contribute to raising the mood. Such cases include sex, hobbies and work, household chores.

– appetite disorders. In clinical depression, there is a sharp decrease or increase in appetite, which entails a change in body weight.

– disorders of sleep regimen and quality. In the course of clinical depression, insomnia, frequent waking up from sleep at too early hours, or irresistible drowsiness can be observed.

– psychomotor disorder, which manifests itself in excessive slowness, or, conversely, in the sharpness of movements, the inability to sit in one place.

– A feeling of constant fatigue when performing even elementary exercises.

– constant reproaches and accusations against him. Enduring self-guilt and worthlessness. Frequent severe criticism of fictitious minuses.

– inability to concentrate, focus on something. With clinical depression, the patient is struggling to get together, concentrate, make a decision. Against this background, short-term memory is deteriorating.

External subjective signs of clinical depression

Many people suffer for a long time from unexplained discomfort, not assuming that the cause of existing ailments is clinical depression. A feature of clinical depression is that it forces the brain to give pain signals to certain parts of the body.

The most common subjective signs of chronic depression are:

– pain in the back. During clinical depression, chronic back pain can be aggravated.

– headaches, migraine attacks.

– soreness in the muscles, knee and elbow joints.

– pain in the chest area. If a person does not suffer from heart disease, but finds pain in his chest, it can be assumed that he has clinical depression.

– digestive disorders, which is expressed in constant diarrhea, constipation and nausea.

– sleep disorders. It means insomnia or a shedding, in other words, a person suffering from such disorders either cannot fall asleep, or, on the contrary, constantly falls asleep.

– unwillingness to eat or gluttony.

– constant dizziness.

Most often, treatment of clinical depression consists in reducing subjective discomfort with antidepressant drugs. And these drugs, in turn, exacerbate the depressive state. Therefore, treatment of clinical depression must begin with natural methods, and only then, as necessary, connect medications.

Pregnant Depression May Affect Infant Brain Development

The brain of a child whose mother was depressed during pregnancy develops differently, which may put him at risk of anxiety disorders at a later age. This was stated by scientists from the National University of Singapore, after a series of studies.

Depression is a fairly common condition during and after pregnancy. According to the US government, about 13% of pregnant women and young mothers experience depression.

A team of researchers led by Dr. Anki Qiu, an associate professor at the National University of Medicine specializing in medical imaging, observed 157 pregnant women. During the experiment, women were asked to answer questions regarding depression at the 26th week of pregnancy. Then, for two weeks from the date of birth, the baby was sent for a brain scan.

As a result, it was found that there were no differences in the shape of the tonsils in children, despite the fact that their mothers had to test during pregnancy. However, researchers have revealed another. On the right side of the amygdala, the ability to communicate was much less in those children whose mothers had the most pronounced depressive symptoms. According to researchers, this can increase the vulnerability of children to mental illness and depression. Although this risk can be reduced if pregnant women are systematically checked for depression and effective treatment is started in a timely manner, which is therapy, drugs for depression, or a combination of therapy and drugs.

According to specialists from the Mayo Clinic, the fact is that women experiencing depression should consult their gynecologist in order to correctly assess the risks. Some mild depressions are treated with psychotherapy, and antidepressants are used to treat more severe forms.

Depression during pregnancy changes the structure of the fetal brain, scientists found

The structure of the departments of the brain of the newborn responsible for the emotional state changes, in the case of a depressed state of the expectant mother during pregnancy, scientists from Singapore said in an article published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

Depression is a common mental disorder that, according to WHO, affects more than 350 million people worldwide. It is generally accepted that people in a depressed state are characterized by health problems, low self-esteem, motor inhibition, and if the expectant mother suffers from depression, the fetus is also at risk. Previously, scientists learned that a child has abnormalities in the brain that are involved in the formation of emotions – amygdala, the so-called cerebellar tonsils. However, since the baby’s condition was studied for several years after his birth, it was not clear how exactly these violations occur.

Anqi Qiu from the National University of Singapore and colleagues invited 157 pregnant women to study. At week 26, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire from which scientists could determine if the future mother suffered from depression. For example, did she have trouble sleeping, did she have panic attacks, how active and energetic she was. At the second stage of scientific research, newborns were already about two weeks old. Using magnetic resonance therapy (MRI), scientists examined the amygdala in their brain.

It turned out that the volume of cerebellar tonsils in children was the same, despite the fact that their mothers suffered depression during pregnancy or not. However, the structure of the amygdala located in the right hemisphere of the brain changed: in children of “depressed” mothers, the ability of nerve cell processes to exchange information with each other was lower.

According to the authors of the article, such children as they grow older can become prone to mental disorders, therefore, it is necessary to assess the state of mental health of a woman from the moment she finds out about pregnancy. 

Young fathers may also have postpartum depression

Men who become fathers at a young age are more likely to experience postpartum depression. That was the purpose of the study, which was published in the scientific journal Pediatrics.

After analyzing the health data of more than 10 thousand young men, whose age was 24-32 years old, specialists from Northwestern University found that the manifestation of symptoms of depression increased on average by 68% during the first five years of paternity.

Earlier in most previous studies, scientists focused on the effects of postpartum depression on young mothers and their children. The new scientific work was one of the first to study in detail the development of symptoms of depression in young fathers.

In this regard, the lead author of the study, Craig Garfield, said that the danger of parental depression lies in its negative impact on children, especially in the first important years of life, when there is an attachment between children and parents. It was found that fathers who experienced depression often resorted to corporal punishment. In addition, they are less likely to spend time with their children, reading books to them. It is likely that children of such fathers may have difficulty with speech and reading, problems with behavior.

Only two out of five cases treat depression

According to recent studies, it was found that only two out of five patients can get rid of a depression.

Scientists from the University of Toronto came to these conclusions after they studied the information of more than 2,500 volunteers living in Canada and suffering from depressive conditions at some point in their lives.

It turns out that 39% were able to recover without any consequences for the human psyche.

Scientists noted that in the recovery of people, social support is important. Such patients recovered 4 times more often, unlike those who did not have a warm emotional relationship.

However, it turned out that the duration of depression did not affect the ability of absolute recovery. In addition, experts clarified that insomnia, functional limitations and poor physical health are becoming a big obstacle to getting out of depression.

Female depression during menopause

Climax is a critical period that every woman experiences at a certain age. In the female body, physiological changes occur that seriously affect her mental state.

Age-related neuroendocrine disorders lead to a decrease, or complete extinction, of reproductive and menstrual functions. The mental and somatic conditions that accompany these processes can provoke the development of menopausal depression.

What is characteristic of depression during menopause

  • Increased irritability.
  • Feeling depressed, causeless sadness, despondency.
  • Frequently changing mood swings.
  • Disorders of concentration.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Prostration.
  • Increased anxiety.
  • Unmotivated outbreaks of aggression against loved ones and others.
  • Internal tension.
  • The absence of any motivation that can help overcome this condition.
  •  

Menopausal syndrome – the main symptomatology

  • Vegetative-vascular disorders, such as jumps in blood pressure, headaches, dizziness, excessive sweating, hot flashes.
  • Disruptions in the endocrine system, which lead to an increase in body weight, contribute to the development of osteoporosis, cause dishormonal hyperplasia of the mammary glands.
  • Changes in mental behavior.
  • Decrease in personal needs.

Scientists argue about the causes of this type of depression, but agree on one thing. During menopause, hormone levels fluctuate – the estrogen content is constantly changing. Since this type of hormone is directly related to the work of biological substances located in the brain and responsible for mood, a decrease in the amount of estrogen can lead to the development of a depressive state.

How to cope with menopausal depression 

  • Immediately start hormone therapy using medications that can restore hormonal levels. To do this, consult a doctor who will develop the necessary course of treatment. These measures should not be postponed; over time, the chances of success are markedly reduced.

Extrogen therapy helps to improve mood, it is often used as a replacement for hormone replacement therapy. A positive effect is achieved in cases of combining drug treatment with psychotherapy.

  • Do not forget that every age has positive aspects. Your children have grown up, that is, there is free time that you can devote to yourself, beloved. Start reading interesting books, which did not have time before, sign up for a club of interests, where you can chat with new people, learning a lot. Embark on a journey, get acquainted with new cities and countries.
  • Tighten your own appearance. Change your hair color and hairstyle, now is the best time to experiment. Long walking and skiing trips, visits to dance classes will help to keep fit.
  • In cases where it is not possible to get out of a depressive state yourself, visit a psychologist. Pay attention to the choice of a doctor. The best option is a woman “aged” with her own life experience.
  • Relatives can help cope with depression during menopause. Their attention and care can work wonders.

Summary

You can cope with this type of depression yourself, or seek help from a psychotherapist. Much depends on personal correct attitude. No need to feel sorry for yourself; menopause is not a disease, but a natural physiological process. A woman is beautiful and desirable at any age, if she wants it. Good luck!

Depression in a pregnant woman can cause autism in a child

According to American scientists, depression in a woman during pregnancy can be a serious risk factor regarding the mental health of the unborn baby.

Experts note that a depressed state can provoke the appearance of problems such as autism and ADHD – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Scientists analyzed data on thousands of healthy children, as well as thousands of children who suffer from these problems, and as a result concluded that depression, untreated or untreated mental disorder in women increases the risk of developing these disorders in children.

The psychiatrist Dipan Sinh, an employee of the clinic at Winthrop University of New York, added that depression can cause premature birth, low birth weight, late toxicosis, and it also causes postpartum depression and suicidal tendencies. According to statistics, depressive states are observed in approximately 20% of young mothers.

That is why experts strongly recommend that all women and their spouses during pregnancy maintain a favorable emotional atmosphere in the family.

Depression and everything about it

Today you can often hear: “I’m depressed.” People inappropriately and out of place recall depression, thus explaining a temporary loss of strength, mental fatigue, and other negative conditions. But how many understand that there is depression in reality? Depression is a fairly common mental disorder these days, impaired affect, the characteristic features of which are the so-called depressive triad: poor mood, anhedonia (inability to experience joy), impaired positive thinking, motor inhibition.  

In a state of depression, a person loses interest in life, refuses or is unable to conduct habitual activities. Frequent consequences of a person being depressed are excessive use of alcohol, drugs, psychotropic drugs.

Forms of depression

Depression can be unipolar when the patient’s mood for a long time remains within the same negative pole, and bipolar, considered as part of a bipolar affective disorder, accompanied by manic or hypomanic episodes. Conditions of mild depression can also occur with cyclothymia, a mental disorder characterized by a chronic unstable mood. 

Unipolar depression is divided into the following forms:  

– clinical depression (major depressive disorder);

– minor depression, which is characterized by the manifestation of at least two main symptoms within two weeks;

– resistant depression, which is difficult to treat with antidepressants;

– atypical depression, the symptoms of which are both manifestations typical of this mental disorder, and atypical signs (increased appetite, weight gain, drowsiness, emotional reactivity);

– Postnatal depression (postpartum);

– transient recurrent depression, manifested in separate short episodes over a long time;

– dysthymia – a chronic mood disorder, when a person complains almost every day of depression and bad mood for at least two years.

Symptoms of Depression

Depression of different forms manifests itself in different ways. However, all the clinical symptoms of a depressive disorder can be divided into main, typical and indirect, additional symptoms. The diagnosis of depression is made if a person has at least two main symptoms and at least three additional symptoms for a certain time. 

Typical (common) signs of depression are:

– depression, low mood for a long time, which arise regardless of external circumstances;

– adhesion;

– loss of strength, increased fatigue that occurs for at least a month.

Additional symptoms of depression are much more serious and more dangerous than typical symptoms. Indirect manifestations of depression include:

·Low self-esteem.

·Pessimism.

· Feeling of worthlessness, guilt.

· Unreasonable, causeless anxiety (fear).

· Inability to make independent decisions.

· Inability to concentrate.

· Glycogeusia (a sweet taste in the mouth that appears without a corresponding irritant).

Unstable appetite.

Periodic weight gain or weight loss.

Insomnia or, conversely, drowsiness.

· Thoughts of death, suicide.

The therapist diagnoses depression in a patient if the duration of typical and additional symptoms is at least 2 weeks. The exception is cases where the signs of depression are very severe, occur sharply, and manifest rapidly.

Timely identified depression responds well to treatment. But despite everything, this particular mental disorder is the most common in the modern world.

How to help a loved one depressed?

I want to help someone who is suffering. Especially if this is a close person – a friend, family member or loved one. But how to support so as not to inadvertently render a disservice? After all, one can “help” so much that a person will only become worse. This material contains practical recommendations for those whose loved ones are in trouble. 

What can not be done?

1. To say that there is nothing to worry about, that all this is not so important, but there are those who are even worse. You will not be encouraged by this, but only prove that you do not take his condition seriously.

2. Roll your eyes, give out lines like “You’ve been hiding this for a hundred years.” Grief must be reprimanded, even if 10 times a person says the same thing. The essence of this speech is not to convey interesting and new information to you, but to purify yourself. 

3. To impose active actions, to urge “to enjoy life”. He himself wants this, but cannot. And with such remarks you only strengthen his feelings of despair and powerlessness.

4. Say why, in your opinion, a person has depression. This is the same as describing the possible causes of a fracture to a person with a fracture instead of an anesthetic. 

5. Give advice, instead of prompting him to consult a specialist.

6. Talk about what could be done. Tips “retroactively” have not yet pulled anyone out of depression. But they can easily strengthen it.

7. To say that in the incident there is a share of his guilt. First you need to survive the grief, and only then analyze what’s what.

8. To argue and impose their point of view. By this you will achieve only the removal of a loved one. He will think that you do not understand him.

9. Communicate with him as inferior, throw compassionate glances. He already feels his own powerlessness, there is no need to add oil to the fire.

What to do!

1. Talk with this person. Let him know that you are close and ready to listen. The body is also a language. If he does not mind, then stroking, hugging or holding by the hand is a great idea.  

2. Believe him. Whatever a person says, this is his psychic reality in which he lives. And there everything is just like that, and not as it seems right to you.  

3. Accept his experiences without judgment. He has the right to any feelings, like each of us. And yes, getting mad at a departed or deceased is normal. There are no indecent feelings. 

4. Take care of yourself and restore your strength. Communicating with a person in depression is very difficult, it is exhausting and consuming. Depression can be contagious. And two depressive people will help little to each other.

5. Provide unobtrusive care by connecting friends and acquaintances to business. You can agree among themselves and make a schedule – who and when will be next. 

6. Monitor life-threatening symptoms very closely.

7. Encourage attempts to overcome the crisis, but do not rush.

8. Remember that you cannot be a therapist for your loved one. But you can create a breeding ground for psychological support, making it easier for him to get out of depression.

9. Help in a variety of ways to express your grief – to speak, sculpt, write, draw. 

10. Constantly ask: “What can I do for you?” And if a person does not know or cannot formulate – offer several options to choose from. 

11. Your main motto is unobtrusive attention .  

Remember that depression is not just “bad mood”. This is a serious and dangerous disease. And the causes of its occurrence are not always associated with any one difficult experience or loss: most often, its causes are complex. Perhaps this is an accumulated sense of guilt or a sense of the meaninglessness of life, which drop by drop created the ground for the development of depression. And if you see symptoms, but don’t understand what exactly caused them , this does not mean that a loved one does not have depression. This means that you do not understand its causes. By the way, depression is often confused … with laziness.    

Do not be lazy, open the ICD-10 and read about what depression really is. As the saying goes, “trust in those who know, but quietly googled.”