There is an exit! 7 tips for those with depression

Depression is a very unpleasant disease. It prevents you from living fully and enjoying life. Fortunately, depression can be cured. We’ll talk about this later. For starters, a little test. How accurately do the following statements describe your condition?

  • You feel unhappy all the time. This continues for at least two weeks.
  • Nothing really makes you happy, including your hobbies, your favorite food, and hanging out with your friends. It’s like all the positive emotions have been sucked out of you.
  • You have no strength for anything. Sometimes it’s hard for you to even get out of bed.
  • You cannot concentrate properly on business and get tired very quickly.
  • You are not able to think as clearly as before.
  • It seems to you that life has suddenly lost its colors, and there is no light at the end of the tunnel and never will be.
  • You often feel guilty and think about your own uselessness.

Do you agree with most of the statements? It’s too early to diagnose, but you have every reason to suspect depression. Here are some tips to help you get out of the black hole.

Tip #1: Don’t Blame Yourself

“Come on, you have no reason to be sad. You are strong, pull yourself together, finally! – you can hear from relatives, friends, colleagues. Unfortunately, many still do not understand that depression is not just a bad mood or psychological immaturity, but a serious mental disorder that is accompanied by physical and biochemical changes in the brain.

Depression can result from a combination of several factors. Among them are chronic stress, somatic diseases, traumatic events, genetic predisposition. Whatever the reasons for your depression, it is important to understand that you are not to blame. This is a disease, not weakness, laziness or lack of will.

Tip two: see a specialist

When our teeth hurt, we go to the dentist. With high fever, runny nose and cough, we turn to the therapist. But for some reason we are not in a hurry to visit a psychiatrist, even if we understand that not everything is in order with our psyche. But in vain.

If you constantly cry and do not want to live, you need to go to a specialist. He will figure out what is really happening to you (it may turn out that you do not have depression, but, for example, an anxiety disorder), and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Here the question arises: to whom to enroll? To a psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist? We recommend starting with a psychiatrist – a specialist who has a higher medical education. He will make a diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribe drugs. It is possible that the psychiatrist will advise you to visit also a psychotherapist.

Tip #3: Don’t give up on medication

If you have severe or moderate depression, your psychiatrist will likely prescribe medication for you. No one can force you to take medicine by force, but it is better not to ignore the doctor’s recommendations. Do not be afraid that antidepressants will change your personality or cause addiction. The devil is not as scary as he is painted.

In simple terms, people with depression have an imbalance of hormones in the brain. The task of drugs is to restore it, in particular, to increase the level of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. The body will rebuild and continue to maintain balance on its own.

Like other medications, antidepressants can have side effects. Sometimes so minor that they can be tolerated for the sake of getting rid of depression. Sometimes very serious – in this case, you will need to change the drug or reduce the dose (but only after consulting a doctor).

Medicines will relieve your suffering, but you should not rely on them alone. Healing from depression takes effort.

Tip Four: Identify the Source of Stress

The limbic system of the brain is responsible for emotions. It is she who reacts to danger, releasing stress hormones into the bloodstream and forcing you to make a decision “fight or flight.” It is an important biological mechanism necessary for survival. However, it is not designed to keep you stressed all the time.

When chronically stressed, the limbic system goes into overdrive, and this failure can lead to depression. To heal, you need to turn off the constantly screaming alarm in the brain.

First of all, you need to determine what exactly causes you mental pain. Anything can be a source of stress – an overly stressful job, family troubles, a tyrant boss, unfriendly colleagues, a toxic friend.

The second step is to try to pull out this splinter. Think about how you can make a difference. Of course, leaving a tyrant husband or quitting a job is not easy. But it is much easier than spending your whole life in anguish and anxiety.

No sudden movements needed just sit down, think things through and make the most detailed plan for your salvation. Even if you do not immediately decide to implement it, the first steps have been taken – and this alone will bring you relief.

Of course, there are things that you cannot influence, such as the death of a loved one. Here it remains only to go through the pain, accept what happened and eventually overcome the grief. Over time, you will feel better – perhaps with the help of a psychotherapist and antidepressants.

Tip Five: Watch Your Mind

In depression, we become hostages of automatic negative thoughts. They only appear to be true, but they are actually false beliefs. Let’s take a look at a few common thinking traps.

All or nothing. You can’t get through to a friend and say, “I don’t need anyone.” Or fight with your loved one and accuse them of “never listening to you.” It is obvious that this is not the case.

Mind reading. Your friend replied dryly to the greeting, and now you have been tormented for the third day, trying to understand how you offended him. Familiar? So, this is a completely pointless exercise: you are not a telepath and you are unlikely to guess what is going on in someone else’s head. Most likely, you are not here at all. Maybe this person is just tired, or maybe he just got scolded by his boss.

Catastrophization . You made a small mistake in the report, and your brain is already painting gloomy pictures: getting fired, unsuccessfully looking for a new job, a homeless, impoverished old age, and a lonely death under a bridge. Agree, all this is too unlikely.

Hanging labels. A person with depression tends to stigmatize himself. Get rid of this habit. Failure in the last competition does not make you a “loser”. Being sick doesn’t make you an “irresponsible mother.” Just because you haven’t been able to figure something out in your new job yet, it doesn’t mean you’re “stupid”.

To cope with depression, you need to change the way of thinking that undermines you from the inside. The next time you take on labeling yourself, predicting all sorts of horrors, or reading other people’s minds, remind yourself that these are just perceptual distortions.

Tip #6: Save energy

Depression lowers performance. You get tired very quickly. Motivation and rational thinking suffer. Every action that a healthy person costs almost no effort is given to you with great difficulty. What you used to do in an hour can now take a whole day, or even two. How to survive this period with the least losses?

Try to leave only the most important things on your to-do list — the things that affect your or someone else’s life — and cross out the rest. Cancel meetings that deprive you of energy, give up unnecessary part-time work, ask loved ones to take care of household chores.

Break the remaining tasks into very small steps. Let “open mail”, “read a message from a client”, “clarify information”, “write a reply”, “send a letter” will be five different tasks. Praise yourself for every item you complete. Now any action for you is a real victory.

Try to make a clear and detailed plan in the evenings for the next day. Then in the morning you will not have to load your brain with unnecessary work: you just need to follow the instructions. In addition, planning itself calms the nervous system.

Tip Seven: Replenish your “bank account”

Imagine that your mental energy is a bank account. Then everything you do during the day can be divided into two categories: income and expenses.

Expenses are, for example, morning preparations, work, household routine … Incomes are laughter, reading, food, movement, sleep. If you are overtaken by depression, you need not only to spend your resources more economically, but also to replenish your account more often. There are many ways to restore energy balance. Here are a few of them.

Physical activity. Exercise stimulates the production of serotonin, norepinephrine and endorphin, helps reduce anxiety levels, and has a positive effect on sleep quality. Of course, during depression it can be hard to even just get out of bed. But if you can still move, move. And it is not at all necessary to train for several hours in the fitness room, even a ten-minute walk to the store will be beneficial.

Warm bath. Helps to relieve stress a little, relaxes and improves mood at the end of a hard day.

Meditation. It alleviates the symptoms of depression, helps reduce anxiety, achieve a state of peace, harmony and concentration. True, for meditation to work, you need to do it every day. And one more thing: under certain conditions ( prepsychotic ), it can provoke deterioration.

Communication with those who recharge your battery. Usually during depression, we do not seek social contacts. However, we still need support. We offer this strategy: limit communication with people who seem to suck energy out of you, but leave around you those with whom you feel good and who can provide moral support (by the way, these are not always friends or relatives). Relief can also come from an online group where people share their ways of coping with depression.

6 types of phobias and “winter depression”: how life in a high-rise building affects us

We strive to live in cities: educational institutions, offices of large companies, entertainment and intellectual events are concentrated there. At the same time, we do not notice what influence the city has on us – even its architecture. We tell how life in high-rise buildings changes our well-being and what to do about it.

High-rise buildings: 6 types of phobias

Citizens most often live in high-rise buildings. That being said, there is an obvious truth: many people are afraid of heights. Environmental psychologist Robert Gifford believes that people are not adapted to live high above the ground. “For our ancient species, living on the upper floors is a completely new phenomenon. The conclusion suggests itself that high-rise buildings are unnatural for us, and it is possible that everything unnatural is somehow harmful.

Gifford says that, on average, upper-floor residents “develop at least six kinds of phobias.”

What are these phobias?

– one of the neighbors or relatives will fall or jump out of the window;

– during a fire they will be trapped;

– an earthquake will break out;

– there will be a terrorist attack;

– outsiders will enter common areas (and commit a crime);

– they are constantly attacked by viruses of infectious diseases.

Vertigo: The Story of Mrs. El -Dinnaoui

Here, for example, is the story of Mrs. El -Dinnaoui . In March 2013, an unusual decision was made in court: the London authorities had to relocate the tenant several floors below. The El -Dinnaoui family lived on the ninth floor, but after the birth of their third child, they needed a bigger apartment. They gave them an apartment, only seven floors higher. Already during the viewing of new housing on the sixteenth floor, Mrs. El -Dinnaoui fainted in the elevator.

At the hospital, she was diagnosed with a panic attack caused by “an incurable fear of heights.”

Her husband immediately refused the proposed living space. Local authorities assured that the woman could well adapt to life upstairs – she would curtain the windows and live for herself, as if on the ninth. The court, however, sided with the woman and ordered the officials to allocate another apartment.

Stressors and “winter depression”

In many high-rise buildings there are things that provoke stress. Although they could have been avoided. Architectural decisions have formed the following sources of stress:

  • lack of sunlight;
  • light pollution from street lamps and billboards;
  • dense traffic and street noise (high-rise buildings are most often located near highways);
  • traffic vibrations;
  • poor ventilation.

Residents of densely built cities (such as Hong Kong) experience a lack of natural light, which leads to rapid fatigue and the so-called “winter depression”. Correcting this situation is real: you can use reflectors to redirect light from the upper floors to the lower ones. They are installed in each apartment at an angle of 45 ° to the window.

Everyone is looking at me

Another source of stress is the dense arrangement of buildings. For example, residents of the new and prestigious N-Y-O- Bankside residential complex in London’s South Bank complained that visitors to the observation deck of the new Tate Modern building were watching them.
N-I-O Bankside and visitors to the new Tate Modern building

This problem of high-rise buildings is usually not taken into account by either developers or residents. For example, the director of the Tate gallery suggested simply hanging tulle on the windows. In essence, he stated that if a person chooses transparent windows, then he does not mind being watched. Don’t be surprised that everyone is watching.

Lack of external territory

In 1972, at the initiative of the UK Department of the Environment, a study was conducted on how mothers with small children feel on floors above the first. Housewives with children were most dissatisfied: the floor did not bother them, but they really wanted a house with a garden. Later, a study was conducted that compared living in an apartment with living in a house.

The results are stunning: apartment dwellers fell ill 57% more often, and their rates of neurosis were eight times (!) Higher.

Psychologists have suggested that the lack of external territory is to blame. Spaces where children could play, mothers could walk, and fathers could relax after a hard day’s work.

Is there a way out?

We made sure that life in a high-rise building is often not sugar. However, what to do? Move or endure?

The architects offer an obvious solution – to design an improved multi-storey housing equipped with green areas. It is these small gardens that make the yard well-groomed and allow people to relax. Residents of buildings become more attached to the house, because the atmosphere is inviting, regenerating and relieves stress.

Bedok-Kurt in Singapore

The first example of new high-rise buildings was Bedok-Kurt in Singapore. The new homes have “tropical patios” on each level, one per apartment. They are separated by ventilation shafts. The corridors between the apartments imitate kampongs (small Indonesian villages), they overlook the courtyards – you can say these are “tropical streets in the sky.”

Bosco Verticale in Milan

An unusual complex of skyscrapers, Bosco Verticale, has opened in Milan: its creators planned to build a vertical forest in the very center of the city. Eight hundred trees and four thousand bushes were planted.

Skyscraper in Redovre

The skyscraper in Copenhagen’s Rødovre district has yet to be built, but will be oriented to the north so that the glazed “gardens in the sky” face south, where there is more sun. The multi-level Sky Village could become a model for future high-rise building projects.

The world is changing. Today, more and more architects understand that people with average incomes should not live in “concrete” boxes, and more “human” skyscrapers should be created. So that each resident has his own private space, good neighborly environment, light, air and a green island of happiness.

Depression in everyday life, a downward spiral and 3 ways to cheer yourself up

Many people have moments when everything seems complicated and useless. It turns out that such sensations are just a by-product of the interaction of the components of the body’s neural network. For most, they pass quickly, like a breath of breeze. But the neurophysiology of each person is unique, so for some of us, depressive moments develop into long and difficult states.

Neurophysiologist, Ph.D. and author of the new “Ascending Spiral” Alex Korb knows how neurophysiology helps to cope with depression, negative thoughts and conditions that “attack” us from time to time. Today we will talk about the symptoms of depression, what a “downward spiral” is and how to cheer yourself up even on the gloomiest day.

Depression is a downward spiral

We all know what it means to get into the downward spiral of life. For example, one Friday evening you are invited to a party, but you suddenly decide: “It seems to me that it will not be fun” – and do not go. Instead, you lie on the couch and watch TV until late. Sleep long the next day, and when you wake up, you feel overwhelmed. Nobody calls, you feel lonely, and even more so you don’t want to communicate with anyone. Nothing is interesting, and here you are already lying on the couch all weekend.

The feeling of discomfort and loneliness intensifies, and you no longer know what to do with it. Either solution seems terrible. This is the beginning of a state that is usually called depressive.

Downward spirals occur because the events around you and the decisions you make change the way your brain works. If the direction of thoughts changes for the worse, you begin to lose control over the situation, the brain switches to the negative, which grows like a snowball.

Fortunately, in most people, the activity of various neural groups “reverses” in time and stops the brain from going into a tailspin. But many are not so lucky.

What does depression really look like?

A common misconception is that being depressed is just being sad all the time. In fact, everything is much more serious. In reality, a depressed person is not just sad – he is unemotional. He has a void inside. The person feels insecure. He has no hope. Those things that once liked are no longer pleasing: no food, no friends, no hobbies. The energy is going somewhere.

Everything seems very difficult, fears appear, but it is not possible to find an explanation for this. Nothing seems worthy of the effort it takes. It is difficult for a person to fall asleep and it is difficult to sleep. Pains and indispositions respond in all body more sharply, than before. It is impossible to concentrate on something, anxiety, shame and loneliness are constantly oppressing.

The problem with the downward spiral of depression is that it doesn’t just push the person deeper into that state, it keeps them there.

Life changes that can overcome depression seem difficult to implement. Healthy sleep would help out, but insomnia takes power. The joy of communicating with friends would help a lot, but there is no desire for contact and no desire to disturb anyone. The brain “loops”.

How Depression Occurs: A Neurophysiologist’s Perspective

Depression is caused by a malfunction in the interaction of neural circuits with each other and with the outside world. Imagine the simplest pair of neurons as a microphone and a speaker.

If you arrange them in a certain way, there is an unpleasant echo effect that scratches your hearing. Position the microphone and speaker a little differently and the problem will disappear. But it arose not because of the microphone or speaker – individually, they work fine. This is a matter of adjusting the system and its individual parts.

The downward spiral of depression is vaguely similar to this example: it is fueled by the special tuning of your neural circuits.

At its core, depression is associated with the problem of “breakage” of neural groups responsible for thinking and feeling. Although our brain is divided into dozens of regions, the neural circuits that cause depression are concentrated in just a few of them.

Two parts of the brain can be blamed for causing depression in people: the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system. To put it simply, the prefrontal area is responsible for thinking, and the limbic part is for sensations. In depression, something goes wrong in the normal mode of interaction between these two areas.

The rational prefrontal cortex is supposed to help the limbic system, but in depression, something in this connection goes wrong.

3 ways to cheer yourself up

And now – a little practice. If you are depressed, frustrated and do not want anything, try (even forcefully!) These tricks. You’ll see, it will be easier for you.

  • If you feel that your mood is rapidly deteriorating, try go to places where there will be people around, such as a library or a cafe. You don’t even need to contact anyone. Simply being with other people in the same physical space will help.
  • Thinking about different versions of the same event activates the mid- prefrontal cortex, and this increases control over how the limbic system controls the emotional state. As a result, it improves.
  • The brain, as a result of versatile activity, leaves a lot of “garbage”, primarily in the form of decomposed neurochemical substances. Just like in your kitchen, these residues must be removed from the body, otherwise they will begin to accumulate and harm. In a dream, a similar “cleaning” plan takes place, which is extremely important for the normal functioning of the brain. So sleeping is a great idea.

In general, there is always hope. Scientific research has shown how small changes in lifestyle and human behavior can change the work and the neurochemical component of the activity of certain sets of neurons. And as the brain and the neurochemicals it produces change, so does the course of depression.

You cannot always change your location, but you can change the direction of your movement. What if, instead of diving, your life went into an upward spiral? Try it.

Warning: if you suspect that you have a depressive disorder, consult a doctor! The recommendations in the book can help, but should by no means be the only way out of the current situation. Be healthy!

Become the best version of yourself: June – depression is canceled

2016 will be a year of change. If you want to take control of your life, break down barriers and achieve incredible results, then you will love our program for every month. And if the rosy summer time doesn’t inspire you and you can’t get rid of negative thoughts, then now is the best time to deal with it. Once and forever.

Do you feel depressed?

Although summer is considered a carefree time, many do not pay attention to it, focusing on personal or professional problems. And if you do not solve them on time, then you risk earning unpleasant psychological consequences. Start by asking yourself:

· Do you wake up in the morning thinking: “I should have…”, “Why didn’t I…”, “I am hopeless…”, “I will never/will not get…”?
· Do such thoughts appear at other moments of your ̆ life (driving, walking, when you fall asleep) – at any ̆ moment when the defense of your consciousness weakens?
· Do you avoid mirrors because you don’t like your reflection? · When you make a mistake, do you scold yourself, mentally calling yourself stupid, idiot, jerk? · Do you feel unworthy of your partner?
Have you ever had to worry about it all the time after some tactless actions or mistakes at work? Do you have obsessive thoughts about such things? · Have you ever “scored an own goal” when you were already close to success, but made a mistake at the last ̆ moment?
· You don’t like to think about your childhood? · You don’t care about your health?
Are you constantly comparing yourself to others (“Why can’t I be like him?”)?
Are you putting yourself in a dangerous position?

If you’ve answered yes to the above questions multiple times, it’s time for a change. Heed the tips we’re going to talk about today.

Accept your reality

Believe it or not, your road to self-improvement starts in the trash. Yes, exactly where there is a mountain of clothes you don’t wear, a bunch of mismatched ̆ kitchen utensils ̆, a stack of newspapers and letters to sort through, countless packages of hotel soap and shampoo that you’ve been hiding in your locker for years. . This is where your path to freedom begins. Isn’t it amazing? You get down to business right where you are. This is a slow ̆ process, but any ̆ superfluous ̆ object that you get rid of brings you closer to freedom.

To put things in order, we must first accept our current position.

Start where you are – there is no other place to start.

– You are scared? Start with this.
– Are you heartbroken? Start with this. Are you overwhelmed and confused? Start with this.

We suggest trying drastic measures: love your current condition, no matter how bad it is. Love your difficulties, your pain, your fear, your heartbreak, your overwhelm, your confusion. Loving all this does not mean denying change. On the contrary, you love your life because you want to change it. Love is the only force in the world that can transform. It acts with faith in the invisible: in the light within the darkness, order within the chaos. Love is full of courage to enter the darkness to release the light. She intends to plunge into chaos to create order.

Martin Luther King Jr. said, “Darkness will not drive out darkness—only light can. Hatred will not drive away hatred – only love can do it. Love is the strongest force of transformation. Loving something beautiful is easy. But transformation begins with love for something for which it is difficult to feel such feelings.

There is no such emotion that cannot be transformed by showing firmness, determination, courage and attention.

Write down your thoughts

You have probably heard the expression “a stone from the soul.” It is believed that this improves a person’s well-being. Perhaps you yourself even felt relieved after you “spoke out” to someone, describing all your worries and fears. After “removing a stone from the soul”, the mode of operation of the brain in stressful conditions changes. As a result, even in a tense situation, you can achieve greater success.

Writing down your feelings before an important test or presentation helps to avoid a psychological breakdown.

If you constantly doubt your abilities, then a frank presentation in writing of ideas that affirm your self-sufficiency can eliminate some of these doubts.

Learn to feel and express emotions

People ̆ in a depressed state have a special ̆ talent to eliminate feelings. They can show themselves and the world that they do not experience normal human emotions, they are very good at building protective barriers of repression, isolation and intellectualization, and they bring self-denial and self-sacrifice to such an extent that it seems that
the “I” completely disappears.

Expressing feelings helps to feel them more strongly. Ask anyone who has played in the theater: when you show sadness on stage, you experience it yourself. When the role is joyful, the artist is having fun. In an experienced actor, artificial mood swings are short-lived, but in everyday life, “changing masks” often helps to experience the emotions expressed in action . Role plays and reconstruction in group and family therapy are based on this principle. Forcing a patient to speak out what he has been holding back for so long opens the floodgates on a river of emotions. Given the relief it brings, it’s amazing why so many people avoid expressing their emotions not out of rational choice, but out of habit or fear.

Exercise: Learn to Express Yourself
Sit comfortably in a quiet place where you will not be disturbed for half an hour. Freely and without embarrassment in expressions, express what is in your heart. Don’t worry if it comes out incoherently: just let yourself talk about the events of the day, the problem that occupies your mind, memories, fantasies, etc. As you talk, keep track of how your body feels. Are you sad? Are you depressed? Are you angry? Happy? Try to put these feelings into words. Or maybe you feel constrained? Concerned? Wary? Try to determine where these sensations come from, and leave them in the past.

Your partner should listen sympathetically and very carefully. He can only make remarks that draw emotions out of you even more. The assistant should not interfere with his thoughts, ask for clarification, criticize or change the subject. Instead, he should say something like, “That must have pissed you off” or “I think you’re enjoying it, but I don’t quite understand why.” In other words, your partner’s comments can only be directed towards the emotions in your story.

With a little practice, you will find that you have more feelings than you thought. This is exactly what needs to be achieved. People with depression tend to over-control the expression of their emotions. Perhaps if you can be more expressive with your partner, you can do it in other situations as well. Think about it.

Goodbye depression!

Today, one in four people experience depression at least once in their lives. And no wonder: in the modern world, people face a huge number of stressful situations every day. Any of them could be the last straw.

Chronic fatigue, inattention, memory impairment, a sense of hopelessness, derealization , low self-esteem … If this is all about you, it is possible that you need urgent treatment!

The New Year holidays are the best time to slow down a little, understand yourself and learn how to be happy. Shall we start?

What is depression?

First of all, depression is a disease, not a weakness of character, as many believe. In confirmation – a small list of people who survived this painful condition: Abraham Lincoln, Winston Churchill, Eleanor Roosevelt, Sigmund Freud, Joan Rowling, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain.

Unfortunately, most people are ashamed of depression and self-flagellate instead of taking treatment. But acknowledging a problem is the first step towards solving it.

Depression is not just melancholy or sadness. Emptiness, fatigue, tension, absent-mindedness, loss of meaning in life, a sense of hopelessness, lack of connection with reality, low self-esteem are far from all symptoms of depression. After all, it affects thoughts, feelings, behavior, and even the body.

Perhaps the most frustrating thing is that depression physically affects our brain. The hippocampus shrinks significantly, causing problems with memory and concentration. But there is good news: this process is reversible.

How does depression occur? Psychotherapist Richard O’Connor writes:

“Depression is the result of the impact of current stress on a vulnerable person. Stress is enough for a person to cross the invisible line and fall into a vicious circle of repressed thoughts, self-destructive behavior, guilt and shame, neurochemical changes. These elements both evoke and reinforce each other.”

Traps of thinking

“My friends, relatives and colleagues do not really know me, they do not even suspect how insignificant I am. I’m absolutely incapable of anything.” Depressed people often engage in this kind of internal monologue. The first step on the path to healing is to learn to notice such thoughts and perceive them as something alien, which has nothing to do with your personality.

Here are some typical thinking mistakes of a depressed person:
Expecting the worst.
In this way, depressed people try to protect themselves from disappointment. Some of them have experienced betrayal or aggression from those they trusted. Frustrated expectations can also relate to other events, such as failure to succeed.

Self-flagellation. The thoughts “I can’t”, “I don’t have a chance”, “I’m not capable of anything”, “I’m disgusting”, “I’m trapped” constantly appear in a person suffering from depression.

Fatalism. A depressed person usually believes that some external forces influence him. He believes that he cannot really change his life and decide something in his destiny.

Selective attention. A person pays attention only to what can confirm his expectations. So he tries to avoid stress and feel safe. But such behavior leaves no chance to see the love and respect of others, the beauty of the world, and so on.

Depressive logic (excessive responsibility, catastrophization , overgeneralization, self-obsession and other destructive thought habits).

How to change your mindset

Negative thoughts are just a bad habit. Fortunately, you can get rid of it: regular mindfulness meditation will help reprogram the brain and remove obsessive anxiety. Start with the following simple exercise.

Find a quiet place where you will not be disturbed for at least half an hour. Turn off all phones, TV, music. Sit comfortably. Place your feet under your knees, but without stretching. Sit up straight with your back straight. The weight of the head is directed down to the spinal column.

Close your eyes. Breathe calmly, slowly and deeply. You can focus on a word or phrase by linking the pronunciation to the rhythm of breathing – “inhale … exhale”, or something else according to your mood. Imagine that distracting thoughts and sensations are bubbles on the surface of a still pond. They rise and burst, the circles diverge and disappear. The water surface is calm again. Don’t rate anything. Do not worry if you are doing the exercise correctly.

Remember that intrusive thoughts and feelings are normal noise generated by the brain; it is used to working this way under stress.

To drive away intrusive thoughts, you can imagine putting them in a box or writing them down – see later. Or tell yourself, “No thanks.” Don’t get angry if you get distracted, just focus on your breathing again.

Sources of pride and self-respect

Reconsider your view of achievements, praise yourself more often and be proud of your successes, even if they seem insignificant to you. Finding a few minutes to read a book with a naughty child is already a major achievement, not only because it is difficult to find time, but also because it has benefited the child.

Whether you love your job or not, it’s important to remember that it brings a lot of pride. You get up and get to the office on time, stay there for the rest of the day, sometimes doing difficult or unpleasant things. It can also be a source of self-respect!

Recall right now for what recent achievements you are worthy of praise. Maybe you fed a stray kitten, supported a friend in a difficult situation, or just did your morning exercises?

Depression Behavior

Depressed people are often procrastinators . By postponing important things for later, they protect their own unstable self-esteem. If something doesn’t work out, then you can always find an excuse: “Now if I had more time!”

In this case, you need to gradually accustom yourself to action. Get rid of perfectionism and in no case expect the perfect result, but just take on real goals. First, you will experience relief when you complete a task that you have long been afraid to start. And secondly, work often helps to distract from problems. But even here it is impossible to go too far.

Sometimes the opposite habit develops: the desire to work until you drop. A depressed person does not know how to prioritize and mindlessly moves forward. The fear of stopping and being alone with emptiness makes you work without respite.

Those who are prone to workaholism need to learn how to relax. You can find a hobby and improve in it (then there will be no feeling of guilt for inactivity). Better to get used to enjoying doing nothing. Walking, meditating, playing with animals, or listening to music are great ways to pass the time.

Attention to your body

Depressed people do not care about their health. They seem to say in plain text: “We don’t deserve better.” These people may neglect physical activity, medical help (or turn to charlatans), develop poor eating habits, and abuse alcohol and drugs.

Such a careless attitude towards oneself and attempts to harm the body are considered skills of depression. This is another way to avoid meeting the real world.

Patients with depression need to learn to listen to their body and take care of it. Everything is important here: proper nutrition, timely rest, and exercise. The latter is especially useful.

Several studies in older age groups have shown that brisk exercise three times a week is as effective as medication in the short term, and that participants who continue the exercise program are significantly more likely to avoid future episodes of depression.

brain training

Really severe depression causes serious changes in the brain. This leads to the fact that we lose the ability to experience pleasure from something good: we are let down by degraded receptors for joy hormones. But don’t worry. Scientists have found out that the brain can be trained. We ourselves are able to influence it.
You can get rid of “depression skills” by improving your lifestyle. The facts confirm that by changing habits, we erase old neural connections in the brain and replace them with others.

In this article, you will learn how to make friends with the hormones of happiness and become an optimist.

The UK National Institutes of Health recommends mindful meditation as a cure for depression.

Mothers with depression

Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression react differently to the crying of their babies than mothers without depression. Such conclusions were made by researchers at the University of Oregon based on fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) data of the brain.

It turned out that in response to the crying of their child, in depressed women, changes in the brain are less pronounced than in those who do not have depressed mood. Such conclusions were made on the basis of fMRI , which shows changes in the blood flow of the corresponding parts of the brain and visualizes these data on the monitor screen.

Study Characteristics

Brain responses to the crying of their babies have been studied in mothers with and without clinical depression. For all women, these were the first children under the age of 18 months inclusive.

Initially, the initial state of the brain was recorded on the fMRI machine, and then they were allowed to listen to the crying of their child.

The responses of mothers with depression were not negative, as expected, but rather more muted. On fMRI , in response to the crying of babies, there were reactions in the limbic system of both hemispheres. Mainly in the striatum, thalamus and midbrain. These are deep subcortical structures responsible for emotions.

In the non-depressed mothers, these subcortical structures were much more activated than in the depressed group. Pronounced differences were observed in the striatum, in particular, in the caudate and nucleus accumbens, and in the medial thalamus.

Areas of the brain closely associated with motivation and positive reinforcement were activated.

Mothers without depression reacted positively to their children’s crying. They showed a desire to approach their children and they realized it when possible.

And in moms with depression, brain activation was often not enough to produce similar responses.

In women with severe depression, fMRI also showed decreased activity in the prefrontal region of the brain, especially in the anterior cingulate gyrus. These are areas of the brain associated with the evaluation of information, planning and regulating the response to incoming emotional signals.


Depression can have a long-term impact on mother and child and their relationship. Attention is drawn to the impossibility of a mother in a depressed state to correctly and optimally respond to the reactions of her child.

This requires coordination of the activity of the cortical and subcortical systems of the brain, which suffers from depressive states in the mother. And, it is possible that it leads to not quite correct formation of response emotional reactions in the child.

Such a mechanism can be considered as one of the risk factors for the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, minimal brain dysfunction in such a child.

The results obtained should be applied in the development of new treatments for depression in mothers. The researchers plan to continue studying these women and their children. Now they will cover the period from the intrauterine period to the first year of motherhood. The goal is to get a complete picture of how the brain works and the relationship between mother and child is formed during this critical period in the development of children.

Commentary by Professor Gimranov

It can be seen that the problem of depression affects not only the patients themselves, but also their children. It is clear that the same wrong reactions of the brain occur when communicating with relatives and friends. Constant use of antidepressants often exacerbates the problem.

Our experience shows that it is promising to activate the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation. As can be seen from this work, such stimulation of subcortical structures is physiological, natural, and non-invasive. Unfortunately, politicians and various leaders also suffer from depression. And the consequences of the wrong reactions of their brain can be felt by the whole country, and sometimes the world.

Dementia, dementia, insanity

Dementia ( dementia – insane), a pathological process in the brain that occurs as a result of damage to neurons. The reasons for this phenomenon are different: vascular, metabolic, organic. Pathology is characterized by a deterioration in cognitive, cognitive functions: speech, thinking, memory, intelligence, understanding of new information, changes in character.

After the diagnosis is established, the patient needs help from both relatives and friends, and from doctors.

In the world there are more than 40 million people suffering from this disease. By 2050, this figure will exceed 100 million. The pessimistic forecast is associated with the general aging of the population. And a greater prevalence of risk factors for dementia.

Causes and provoking factors

Typically, senile dementia ( senilis – senile) in everyday life is called senile insanity. However, in addition to age-related degradation, dementia can be the result of other diseases:

  1. atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
  2. AIDS;
  3. infectious and toxic encephalitis;
  4. damage to internal organs (kidneys, liver);
  5. intoxication with alcohol, drugs, poisons.

MRI data published in April 2013 in The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease ” indicate that the development of dementia is influenced not only by high risk factors for stroke – hypertension, diabetes, but also by the presence of plaques and other focal changes in the brain. Often, various manifestations of depression and changes in character and behavior can be early precursors of this disease.

It should be borne in mind that a person not only loses previously acquired skills and knowledge. The ability to learn and acquire new skills is significantly worsened or even lost.

In the earliest stages of the onset of the disease, only an experienced neurologist can make a diagnosis.

Principles of diagnosis and treatment

It is important to notice signs of trouble in time. Then doctors have more time and resources for the timely diagnosis of cognitive disorders. More likely to find the cause, stop the progression of the disease.

Having established the cause of dementia, it is necessary to draw up courses of complex pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy. Without this, it is impossible to achieve positive results. It is important to correct blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, vitamins, testosterone and estrogens, etc.

We must not forget about regular physical and intellectual activity. We observe the diet (vitamins B, E, antioxidants) and rest (good sleep, walks).

Alcohol and smoking should be completely excluded.

Training of cognitive functions of the brain is achieved by playing chess, solving crosswords and puzzles. Actual reading books, communicating with other people, memorizing poetry, foreign words.

It is important to start active prevention and treatment at the initial stages of the onset of the disease. It is at this stage that one can count on good clinical results and slow down the further development of the disease.

Comments by Professor R.F. Gimranov .

The problem of dementia affects not only the patients themselves, but also their families.

Strange and inadequate actions, at the initial stages of the disease, are considered by relatives as manifestations of character, whims. But they should not be ignored. For example, mild depression may be an early symptom of personality degradation.

Timely diagnosis of the problem, and then proper treatment and prevention, can radically change the situation. And most importantly – to slow down the further development of the pathological process. For many years, the Clinic of Rehabilitation Neurology has been successfully performing brain stimulation in combination with standard therapy in such patients.

Depressive States – Prevention

Depression is a common problem in 21st century society that we encounter frequently in our clinic. And it’s not easy to deal with it. Therefore, the doctors of the clinic of restorative neurology understand that depression is better to prevent. To do this, you need to work on your own psychology and lifestyle. Because the phrase “a healthy mind in a healthy body” is directly related to the prevention of depression.

Psychological moments

  1. The main cause of depression is constant frequent stress. Learn to avoid them, quickly get out of conflict situations. The implementation of this paragraph depends only on ourselves.
  2. If there is a global goal in life, then it is better to break the process of moving towards it into more short stages. You need to focus as often as possible on solving current tasks that are easy to complete at a particular point in time.
  3. In a difficult situation, do not forget that there are people whose situation is much worse than yours. Compare yourself with these people and see how everything in your life is more favorable than theirs.
  4. It is necessary to treat your own psychological potential sparingly. Live in those rhythms that are comfortable and cozy for you. You should not waste your energy in vain, it is also pointless to “compete” with someone in success.
  5. Let go of deceptive values in life. Realize that they bring much more suffering than positive emotions. Try not to be consumerist.
  6. Knowing your worth, do not seek to enter into quarrels with people who do not deserve it.
  7. Focus on the little joys that life brings. Learn to enjoy even the smallest positive.

Lifestyle advice

  1. It is necessary to strengthen your own willpower by all available means. As an option – morning exercises, which must be performed every day. Running and swimming are sports that have a beneficial effect on the emotional background. The body welcomes any sport.
  2. Yoga classes help to stabilize the psycho-emotional background.
  3. Try to drink alcohol as little as possible. If you smoke, then take the trouble to quit this habit.
  4. Wear only clothes and shoes that are comfortable for you.
  5. Optimize the mode of your day, especially labor. There must be periodic five-minute breaks in work.
  6. Try to get at least 8 hours of sleep at night. At the same time, you should be comfortable in bed.
  7. Optimize your diet. Be sure to include fresh fruits, vegetables, vitamin complexes in it daily.

How do minimal brain dysfunctions manifest themselves?

Posted on January 9, 2022  in Uncategorized

Brain damage at the perinatal stage, as a rule, manifests itself in three variants of clinical symptoms. They depend on the localization and scale of the focus:

  1. Gross movement disorders, against which an intellectual deficit may also occur. A typical example of such a lesion is cerebral palsy, cerebral palsy.
  2. Conditions when the intellect suffers to a greater extent, and movement disorders are less pronounced. Considered moderate or moderate.
  3. Relatively mild lesions of the central nervous system, with a smoothed, not obvious picture of motor and intellectual anomalies. But with signs of psychological disorders.

Simply put, MDM refers to any brain pathology, which is the basis for the formation of mental pathology or movement disorders. With varying severity: from behavioral disorders to cerebral palsy.

Here it is appropriate to recall the staging of the maturation and development of intellectual abilities in children under 7 years of age. It was proposed by Piaget ( Piaget , 1994, 1997 ), highlighting 4 periods. And in each of them, children with brain dysfunctions have their own deviations.

Common manifestations by sub -periods

The first 1.5 years of life is the sensorimotor phase. If a child has suffered perinatal hypoxia of the brain, then his coordination of movements is disturbed, motor activity is weakened or increased.

The second phase is from a year to the complete formation of speech skills. During this period, children with MDM begin to lag behind their peers in speech.

The first words often appear on time (about a year), then stagnation sets in, development stops. The period of “muteness” is characterized by the fact that children understand the appeal to them with gestures and give feedback. They just keep silent.

From 2.5 to 4-6 years old, the child learns the world already without the need for tactile information, due to not only tactile information. The so-called preoperative intelligence is involved in this. In a child with brain dysfunction, it is disturbed: video motor coordination is lame, coordination between the assimilation of visual and auditory information is disordered.

There are varying degrees of problems with the pronunciation of sounds, speech therapists interpret this as dyslalia.

The phase of specific operations (from 6-7 years of age onwards), when experience and accumulated knowledge are synthesized with genetic abilities, is accompanied by learning problems in children with MMD.

There are also behavioral deviations, difficulties with social communication in the team.

The problem of diagnosis and therapy of minimal brain dysfunctions remains debatable. Next, we will take a closer look at what is outlined in the previous part of the article.

Etiology and pathogenesis of minimal brain dysfunctions

Neuropathologists perceive MMD as pathological manifestations of brain damage in the early period. And which are manifested in violation of maturation, disharmonious development of higher nervous activity.

As a result of such disorders, we are faced with the immaturity of the functional resources of the brain. Those that provide higher nervous functions: speech development, the ability to memorize, perceive and analyze information from the outside.

The level of intellectual development in children with MMD is within the normal range. Difficulties arise in the processes of learning, learning, and social adaptation.

Brain damage is usually focal in nature. Depending on the localization of the site, there are violations of one or another nervous function. One child will find it difficult to write ( dysgraphia ), another will find it difficult to work with numbers ( dyscalculia ). Also, ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, should be considered as a variant of the manifestation of MMD.

General symptoms

In addition to disorders in the work of higher nervous functions, children with CNS lesions show other symptoms:

  • fast fatigue from intellectual activity;
  • difficulty concentrating;
  • difficulties with mastering new school topics;
  • poor adaptation to conditions requiring autonomic regulation – heat, stuffiness, bright light and loud noise;
  • tendency to motion sickness, “seasickness”;
  • headaches since childhood.

Temperament also affects manifestations. For example, at the end of the day in the kindergarten group, choleric people become overexcited, and phlegmatic people become inhibited.

A study of the anamnesis of problem children shows that many of them demonstrate the phenomena of hyperexcitability . Such a syndrome in most occurs from the first months after birth. Delayed onset, from the age of 6-8 months, occurs in about 20% of children with MMD.

Infant age

Even with the observance of the requirements of caring for the child, providing him with proper nutrition and regimen, he is restless. Shouts for no apparent reason, haphazardly moves arms and legs.

Vegetative reactions are likely: sweating, redness of the skin and its marbling, increased heart rate and respiration.

Attacks of screaming are accompanied by muscle reactions: increased tone, trembling of the chin and twitching of the limbs. There is such a movement when the child opens his arms, as if for a hug – a spontaneous Moro reflex.

Sleep suffers. The child does not fall asleep for a long time, wakes up at night for no reason, gets up early. In a dream shudders, groans.

Digestion is disturbed, children do not take the breast well, they are restless during sucking. They gasp for air and often burp. Due to dysregulation of the muscles of the stomach, food from it does not pass into the intestines, the child vomits.

Again, autonomic dysregulation of the gastrointestinal tract causes an increase and decrease in intestinal motility. Hence – frequent and loose stools, followed by constipation.

early childhood period

From one to three years, children with CNS damage have:

  • strong excitability of the nervous system;
  • restless behavior, spontaneous movements;
  • sleep problems;
  • disorders of appetite and digestion;
  • poor dynamics of weight gain;
  • subtle lag in the development of psychoverbal function, motor skills.

Deficiency and lag in psychomotor maturation (in comparison with peers) is well visualized by 2-3 years. At this age, the diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunctions is most often made for the first time.

If you pay attention to the child, then from the first years you can notice motor disinhibition – hyperkinetic phenomena. Children are clumsy, they have problems with fine motor skills of hands, precise finger movements.

Hence the difficulties with self-care skills: fastening buttons, tying shoelaces

Therefore, they hardly master the skills of self-service, for a long time they cannot learn how to fasten buttons, lace up their shoes.

The desire of parents to educate the child early, with MMD, overloads his brain. Instead of growing intellect, children become stubborn, naughty. Possible neuroses, tics. The opposite result is not excluded: a slowdown in psychoverbal development.

By the age of 3 years, the following come to the fore:

  • motor awkwardness;
  • high fatigue, asthenia ;
  • difficulty concentrating;
  • hyperactivity;
  • tendency to impulsiveness;
  • stubbornness and negativity.

Urinary incontinence (enuresis) and fecal incontinence ( encopresis ) are often superimposed on such phenomena.

A jump, an increase in the manifestations of MMD, as a rule, coincides with changes in the external environment. At 3 years old – kindergarten, at 6-7 – school.

This phenomenon is explained by the weak resources of the damaged brain for adaptation. Since during these periods the child experiences a sharp jump in physical and mental stress.

School age

The greatest difficulties for children with MMD at school are associated with maladjustment in the team and behavioral disorders.

Psychological difficulties in such cases entail psychosomatic disorders, the debut of VVD.

Preschool children with MMD are hyperexcitable and clumsy. At the same time, they are scattered, distracted, restless and quickly get tired. Motor activity can both increase, and vice versa – slow down.

Behavioral and social deviations are noticeable: infantilism, impulsiveness

Schoolchildren experience problems with learning, assimilation of new things. Behavioral disorders are aggravated: psycho-emotional instability, low self-esteem, insecurity. And at the same time – hot temper, cockiness, aggressiveness. Social phobias and opposition are being laid.

With the entry into adolescence, behavioral deviations against the background of MMD become aggravated. Children behave more aggressively, the corners are sharpened in relationships at school and at home, in the family. Academic performance suffers, the risk of early initiation to alcohol, psychoactive substances is high.

Such a danger requires directing the efforts of doctors, parents and teachers to identify and eliminate the manifestations of MMD.

Critical periods

That is, it is noticeable that the jump in the symptoms of MMD falls on certain periods of psychoverbal development. The first one falls on 1-2 years, at which time the cortical zones responsible for speech skills are actively developing.

The second period is 3 years. At this age, children accumulate vocabulary, develop the skills of forming phrases, improve attention and memory. With MMD, in this phase, a lag in speech and articulation becomes noticeable.

The third critical period is considered to be 6-7 years. The child begins to master writing and reading, which increases the requirements for the functional abilities of the brain.

Noticeable, the symptoms of brain dysfunctions become at the elementary school level.

A complex of behavioral disorders is characteristic:

  1. high excitability;
  2. restlessness;
  3. dispersion;
  4. disinhibition of drives;
  5. there is no self-control, a sense of guilt is not developed;
  6. there is no age-appropriate criticality.

The behavior of such children is disinhibited: they are not assiduous, they jump up from their seats. they don’t walk, but run, distract themselves and interfere with their neighbors in the desk. They grab onto several things at once, they rarely finish what they started.

Promises are made and immediately broken (forgotten). They show inadequate playfulness, negligence, carelessness. Intellectual activity is weakened. The instinct of self-preservation is reduced – they often fall, get injured and bruised.

At first glance, children with MMD show a choleric temperament. However, the essence of their inconsistency and behavior lies in the weakness of the functional regulation of the brain.

The lack of self-control and criticality arises due to the underdevelopment of the frontal cortex. Since these areas are responsible for control, moral and volitional properties of the individual.

Psychophysiological features of children with MMD

A child with minimal MD does not have typical, specific symptoms. The appearance of “small neurological signs” in early childhood, which are combined with emotional and volitional deviations, may suggest a problem. Because of what there is a lack of intellectual abilities.

Intelligent Features

For children with non-severe forms of MD, mental retardation is quite typical. But if mental retardation is accompanied by irreversible intellectual impairment, from with MMD, the lag is due to behavior, then it is reversible.

In preschoolers, mental retardation is manifested by a violation of three functions:

  • perception of new information;
  • ability to concentrate;
  • memory deviations.

Disturbances in spatial representations are considered typical manifestations of mental retardation in children. The child is poorly oriented in his own body, his fine motor skills are weakened. The function of attention suffers: it becomes fragmented, its volume is limited.

Many children with mental retardation have a peculiarity of memory: involuntary memorization is better in terms of productivity than attempts to learn any material.

emotional sphere

Children are characterized by labile, unstable emotions. It is difficult for them to adapt to the team in the group, in the classroom. Mood swings are combined with asthenia, fatigue. There are such children who have emotional deviations combined with a lack of cognitive activity.

Communication with such children is difficult. For an ordinary person, their peer, a child with behaves unpredictably. Acts thoughtlessly, impulsively. Children around them may be aggressive. Parents often mention when talking that their children have no friends.

Signs of MMD

Anomalies are noted in various areas of higher nervous activity. This is confirmed by the ambiguity of the results of psychological testing of children with MMD. In different subtests , different results are noted: increased, decreased, or even in some places – normal.

Anomalies of perception:

  • unable to perceive and distinguish the sizes of objects;
  • get confused between the parties (left-right);
  • do not distinguish between top and bottom;
  • find it difficult to navigate in space;
  • get confused in time;
  • sometimes there are violations of reading, writing (for example, the inscription of letters and words in a mirror image).

Neurological disorders, if any, are mild. Reflexes are slightly asymmetric, hearing is weak, visual acuity is reduced, coordination is slightly disordered, etc.

How many signs one patient will have depends on the extent of brain damage. Gross anomalies are rare.


There are various forms of aphasia. Speech development slows down. Due to impaired auditory perception, slight pronunciation disorders may occur.

Motor skills

Motor activity, if impaired, may have a different character. Tremors, muscle rigidity, uncontrolled sweeping movements, tics. Naturally, fine motor skills and coordination suffer.


As mentioned above, there may be problems with counting, writing, spelling rules. With motor disorders – difficulty with tracing the contour. It is difficult to get organized, to complete the work that has been started.


Abstract thinking suffers the most. There are also difficulties with the synthesis of concepts. Weak arbitrary memory makes it difficult to form conclusions and conclusions. A floating type of thinking is characteristic.

Constitution of the psyche

There is neurotic behavior:

  • nail biting;
  • biting a pen, pencil;
  • children suck their fingers;
  • unconsciously nodding;
  • eat food out of the usual order (start with dessert);
  • get tired easily;
  • nocturnal enuresis is typical;
  • hygiene skills are formed and fixed with great difficulty.

Emotions and will

Uncontrolled impulsivity, irritability and irritability. The ability to self-control and criticism is reduced.


Disorders of circadian rhythms (drowsiness in the morning, activity in the evening). They experience less need to sleep than their peers. They sleep restlessly, toss and turn. Sleep is either superficial or extremely deep.


The ability to contact with peers is weak, obsessive affection is possible. In games, they are impulsive, losing – annoyed. They prefer a narrow circle of 1-2 children. Reach out to those who are younger than them.

Somatic maturation

Physical parameters, as a rule, also with deviations. Although sometimes in somatic development they are ahead of their peers.

social behavior

The level of intelligence allows a higher level of social behavior of the child than that which is realized. Authorities are not recognized. The behavior may not be appropriate for the current situation.

Personality character

Trusting, tend to imitate elders and peers. Periodic irritability and aggression change to attention to those who are nearby, and vice versa. Changes in the environment are difficult to accept, they strive to maintain the familiar environment in everything. They love boasting, self-esteem, as a rule, is underestimated.

Concentration of attention

Typical distraction. The concentration of attention is weakened. Viscosity of speech, inertia of motility are characteristic.

Frequency of symptoms

It is rare for a child to have less than one of the above symptoms. Next, let’s see how often certain symptoms of MMD occur.

Attention disorders

The most common symptom, 90-95%. The consequences of MMD do not allow children to concentrate and for a long time to delay concentration on the subject of activity. Weak ability to ignore external stimuli that are easily distracted.


It is also a frequent occurrence, found in 75-85% of children. Talkativeness is one of the most common manifestations. At the same time, up to 20% of children with MDM have signs of hypoactivity .

Complex of neurological phenomena

75-80% have 5-6 mild neurological abnormalities:

  1. difficulty making complex movements;
  2. tics of mimic muscles;
  3. trembling of the muscles of the chest and back;
  4. restless fingers;
  5. hyperkinesis;
  6. deviations from tendon reflexes, problems with coordination.

Emotional lability

It occurs in 70-75%. Children of any age group with MMD are prone to neurosis, anxiety, and tearfulness. The mood is constantly changing. Failures are perceived with great feelings, resulting in either irritability or phobia.

Minimal brain dysfunction

Posted on January 3, 2022  in Uncategorized

For the first time, it was only in 1937 that the child’s behavior could be associated with changes in his brain. This idea was expressed by the American neurologist Samuel Orton ( Samuel Orton ), dealing with the problem of children’s learning. The term “minimal brain dysfunction, MMD” or “mild MD” itself appeared in 1955.

The findings were confirmed by Strauss , Werner in 1947 and Strauss , Lethinen in 1955. These doctors were engaged in observing the maturation of behavioral responses in children with a normal birth history and prematurity. Doctors have established that there is a direct relationship between the characteristics of the development of the child’s psyche and damage to his brain.

What is Minimal Brain Dysfunction

Synonyms: hyperkinetic chronic brain syndrome, minimal brain damage, mild infantile encephalopathy, mild brain dysfunction.

Research on this topic was carried out by both domestic and foreign neurologists. Statistics say that from 5 to 20% of preschool children and schoolchildren have one or another version of MMD.

The pathology is widespread. Doctors refer it to encephalopathies of the perinatal period. This term summarizes all the problems and lesions of the brain that occur during the perinatal period.

According to clinical criteria, the perinatal period is further divided into three sub -periods :

  1. Prenatal or antenatal – calculated from the 7th month of gestation until the onset of labor;
  2. Intrapartum or intranatal – begins with the onset of contractions and ends with the baby leaving the birth canal or from the incision during caesarean section.
  3. Early neonatal is the first 7 days of an independent life of a child, when his body is forced to adapt to a changed environment.

MMD is characterized by delayed maturation of brain structures. Regulatory functions of the nervous system are also violated. This is reflected in the emotional sphere of the child, the ability to adapt, vegetative regulation, behavior.

In other words, the term MMD combines non-gross deviations in behavior and cognition, while maintaining intelligence at an acceptable level.

Such anomalies are the result of mild insufficiency of the functionality of the brain. And they arise, as a rule, as a result of one or another of his lesions.

Causes of brain dysfunctions

The main mechanism that affects the nervous tissue of the fetus, the newborn is hypoxia, oxygen deficiency.

The danger of brain hypoxia increases in late pregnancy and in the phase of childbirth. This is confirmed by data obtained from the results of EEG, computed tomography .

According to the criterion of cause and development, lesions of the nervous system in the perinatal period are divided into three types:

  1. Hypoxic- ischemic. Occur due to oxygen starvation of the fetus with a deficiency of O 2 or chronic metabolic disorders in the prenatal period ( feto -placental insufficiency). There is a danger of intranatal hypoxia, asphyxia, when the umbilical cord is infringed during childbirth or the vessels of the fetal neck are clamped.
  1. Traumatic, usually caused by physical impact on the head.
  2. Mixed, hypoxic -traumatic – when a combination of both of the above effects is noted.

It is noticed that in children with prematurity, subcortical structures suffer from hypoxia. Who is born at term, more at risk of damage to the cortex. Due to the anomalies that have arisen, minimal brain dysfunction (MMD) occurs. In childhood, they are regarded as encephalopathy. Manifestations in adults are explained by the weakness of the nervous system.

Below we will dwell in more detail on the factors that can cause CNS damage in the fetus and newborn.

Which period of pregnancy is more dangerous?

As you know, during the first 12 weeks, the laying, the formation of the foundation for the body of the future person takes place. Including – brain sprouts are formed. And the protection of the fetus, the placental barrier, matures by the end of the first trimester.

Therefore, in the first weeks of gestation, infections are dangerous:

  1. toxoplasmosis;
  2. chlamydia;
  3. listerellosis ;
  4. syphilis;
  5. serum hepatitis;
  6. cytomegalovirus infection, etc.

Pathogens from the mother’s body freely reach the fetus and disrupt the primary growth processes. The emerging brain structures are no exception.

At the stage of laying, infections lead to generalized lesions of the fetus. Due to the high sensitivity to damage, the correct formation of the nervous system is disrupted.

From the 13th week, when the placental barrier begins to work, the influence of adverse effects does not lead to gross defects. However, the risk of intrauterine malnutrition, premature birth and the birth of a child that is not yet ripe for this remains.

Factors that have a negative impact on the development and maturation of the nervous system are known. They can affect both at the time of conception (if the reproductive organs of the parents are affected), and subsequently.

Typical: ionizing radiation, alcohol, acute and chronic poisoning.

Risk factors for MMD during gestation

We list the main reasons due to which nervous tissue suffers in the perinatal period:

  1. chronic and acute diseases suffered by a pregnant woman;
  2. pathologically occurring pregnancy – severe toxicosis, eclampsia, the threat of interruption;
  3. any sources of chronic intoxication in the body of the expectant mother;
  4. unbalanced diet, inadequate diet during pregnancy;
  1. the early age of the expectant mother, her immaturity;
  2. hereditary pathology, metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, etc.);
  3. negative impact of the environment;
  4. environmental situation at the location of the pregnant woman – toxic damage, poisoning, the effect of ionizing radiation, certain drugs, etc .;
  5. abnormal course of labor – weakness of labor activity, or vice versa – rapid labor, delivery of obstetrics (forceps);
  6. prematurity and immaturity of the baby;
  7. genetic anomalies ( Down’s b- n ).

miscarriage is more important . When, due to the health problems of the mother, the baby is born prematurely, immature and premature, with low body weight.

Such a child, as a rule, is not yet ready for overload during childbirth, which is why it is injured in the birth canal. Also, immature children have a higher risk of adaptation failure in the postpartum period.

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Statistics show that brain tissue anomalies that cause MMD are most often provoked by the use of alcohol by parents on the eve of conception. Or when a pregnant mother “uses”. Ethanol is a killer for immature fetal neurons, disrupts the laying and maturation of the brain.

No less harmful are strong stimulants – coffee, energy drinks. They constrict blood vessels, including the umbilical cord. Those can cause acute or chronic fetal hypoxia.

Risk factors for MMD during labor

At this stage, the born baby is at risk of being exposed to hypoxia or infection. Typical causes for brain dysfunctions in childbirth:

  1. a long pause between the discharge of water and contractions;
  2. insufficiency of contractions, weakness, which forces the use of stimulation of uterine contractions;
  3. small opening of the pharynx of the cervix;
  4. rapid childbirth;
  5. the need to use obstetrics – turning the fetus, forceps;
  6. entanglement with the umbilical cord, clamping of its vessels;
  7. emergency caesarean section with general anesthesia;
  8. excessive size and body weight of the fetus.

Children at risk for brain damage include those who are preterm and who are abnormally overweight (too large or too small).

As a rule, damaging factors during childbirth rarely directly affect the structures of the central nervous system. But the consequences of such exposure indirectly disrupt the biological and physiological maturation of the infant’s brain.

Risk factors for MMD in the early postnatal period

Immediately after birth, to get brain damage, the child risks for the following reasons:

  1. neuronifections ;
  2. trauma;
  3. intoxication.

Combining or separately, genetic anomalies with organic lesions of the nervous tissue become the basis for the characteristics of the character and behavior of children described below.