Doctors Find Out Who Is More Stressful

Posted on June 22, 2020  in Uncategorized

Many people recover quickly from stress, but some develop stressful depression after stressful situations. Scientists have found an explanation for this difference – it turns out that everything depends on the physiology of the brain.

Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute (USA) set out to find out the cause of the difference in people’s responses to stress. They came to the conclusion that clinical depression after stress may be the result of too intense activity of the GPR158 orphan receptor.

As the experts found, receptors are called orphans, for which there are no compounds (ligands) capable of binding to them. Scientists conducted an experiment in mice suffering from chronic stress and found that animals with an excess of GPR158 had a whole series of signs of depression.

“GPR158 affects key signaling pathways associated with mood regulation in the brain area called the prefrontal cortex,” the authors of the project noted.

According to them, in animals in which GPR158 activity was suppressed, not only depression did not develop, their stress resistance was generally the highest. Scientists believe that things can be the same for people.

This finding will help develop a drug for the treatment of depression, the effect of which will be based on suppression of the GPR158 receptor. 

What depression is she after having a baby?

Posted on June 18, 2020  in Uncategorized

Immediately after giving birth, many women begin to feel such a strong euphoria that they seem ready to love the whole white world. However, this mood does not last long. Absolutely different sensations come to replace: suddenly a state of anxiety and inexplicable irritability, then aggressiveness and causeless tearfulness rolls over. It would seem that a woman should have received exclusively positive emotions from the state of motherhood, but there it was ….

Anxiety, depression, fatigue, irritability, panic attacks, a sense of unreality of what is happening, poor sleep, loss of appetite and libido, helplessness in household chores, loss of love for your baby are all signs of a fairly common postpartum depression. And its consequence is that a woman ceases to experience joy from her own motherhood, ceases to monitor her appearance, avoids communication, and may even become addicted to drugs or alcohol.

Three types of postpartum crises are distinguished, these are:
postpartum spleen, which appears during the first few days after birth, when you want to cry, there is a feeling of oppression, insecurity, fear, self-doubt;

mild depression, which is accompanied by attacks of helplessness, loneliness, fear, and lasts from several days to a week;

chronic depression: bouts of anxiety, fear, when ordinary activities seem completely unbearable. Such depression develops during the first three months after childbirth and can persist for a whole year, and sometimes even three to four years.
By the way, modern medicine today considers depression as a natural reaction of the body to childbirth and motherhood. Therefore, a young mother should be mentally prepared in advance for the fact that after the birth of her baby, her feelings may become somewhat unstable and rapidly change in different directions: from joy to despair and vice versa. Their relatives should be warned about this so that they do not perceive such a state solely as the vagaries of a spoiled lady and help a woman survive this period as easily and quickly as possible.

So, you are under stress. What to do?

Remember that the onset of motherhood will require you to review the entire lifestyle,
as a result of which you will simply have to adapt to a lot. And if earlier, for example, you could not have imagined a day without a morning newspaper and regularly watching television programs, then with the appearance of a baby in your house you will have to forget about all this: you simply will not have time for this. And in order not to feel divorced from the whole world, listen to the radio (you can do this by doing any housework), and you will always be sufficiently informed about the most significant events taking place in politics, culture, and music.

Try to prioritize and do not try to keep the house in the same state; you simply don’t have enough strength to maintain an impeccable cleanliness. Encourage yourself that chaos reigned in your once so tidy house – a temporary phenomenon.

Do not forget that you just need to find time to be alone with yourself, to wander around the shops, look at a girlfriend or go to the beauty parlor to find balance and connection with the outside world. Therefore, do not be shy to at least occasionally ask your loved ones to sit with your child and do not take into account what
people think about you.

No less important for you after childbirth and rest. Try to set certain hours for rest, preferably if they have a daytime nap. In the event that you do not want to sleep, just relax, close your eyes and do not communicate with anyone at this time. Have a cup of mint or chamomile tea. These herbs have soothing properties. And limit your intake of caffeine, which increases nervousness.

While the baby is sleeping, read a good book. Reading is one of the best ways to avoid stress. Rent a comedy cassette. Laughter perfectly relieves stress.

Turn off your phone and take a hot bath with aromatic oils. Turn on pleasant music and ask your husband to give you the massage necessary to relieve muscle tension and improve your mood. And in order to enhance relaxation, add a few drops of aromatic oil to the massage oil.
The soothing properties are ylang-ylang, sandalwood, lemon, orange, lavender and chamomile oils. By the way, often a similar massage session can turn into a wonderful intimate love scene.

Take time to do gymnastics. It has already been proven that if you do gymnastics during the period of depression, then the emotional state improves much faster. And regular gymnastics reduces stress, fatigue, aggressiveness and depression, gives vigor and uplifting. In addition, exercises distract from everyday worries. Performing them, you can at least temporarily forget about your problems.

Often, the cause for depression can be the feeling that you have become a housewife. In this case, hire a nanny or send the child to a day nursery, and you immediately go to work. And most importantly – do not hesitate to consult a psychologist, no one will consider you abnormal. Remember that if you do not understand what is bothering you now, then it will be much more difficult to do this.

How does depression occur after childbirth?

Posted on June 14, 2020  in Uncategorized

Why are about half of young women so depressed during the best period of their lives? This is the paradox of postpartum depression, for which experts must find the final solution and find out the problem. rapidly decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone after childbirth can unleash depression, in the same way that hormonal exposure before menstruation can cause a similar reaction. The fact that the susceptibility to the effects of hormones is different in different women can explain why half suffer from postpartum depression, despite the fact that all women experience similar changes in hormone levels. There are many factors of a different kind that are likely to be involved in the onset of postpartum depression, which occurs around the third day after birth, but it can also occur in every period after birth during the first year. Postpartum depression is more likely to occur in women who give birth many times than the first time.

Change of position in the family. Your child is now number one star. Guests are more interested in the child than in your state of health (this change will accompany you as well at home). The pregnant princess now plays the role of Cinderella in the postpartum period.

Homecoming. It is not an unusual thing to oppress and overwork caused by duties that you must fulfill (especially when you have many children and you do not have enough extra help).

Fatigue. Overfatigue with difficult childbirth, too little sleep in the hospital in connection with caring for a child often overlaps with the feeling that you have not yet matured to motherhood.

Frustrated by the child. The child is so small, so red, so fat, without expression. Unlike smiling children from the advertisements you saw. The whole adds to depression.

Frustrated by childbirth or oneself. If in your case some unrealistic dreams of childbirth have not come true, then you may feel unhappy that it is your fault.
Feeling of fracture. Childbirth is a great event for which you were preparing, which you expected and now everything is behind us.

Lack of competence. Young mothers may ask themselves: “Why do I have a child if I am not able to take care of him?”

Location to your old self. Carefree life ended, the opportunity to make a career. All this went irrevocably after the birth.

Dissatisfaction with one’s appearance. You used to be fat and pregnant, now only fat. You cannot bear the wearing of things that you wore during pregnancy, but nothing else suits you.

Unfortunately, a little can be said about postpartum depression, perhaps the only thing is that it does not last very long, about 48 hours for most women. Therefore, it does not require treatment, except in those cases in which depression is prolonged. Below are ways to overcome postpartum depression.
If depression appears in the hospital, persuade the husband to order dinner for two and try to have lunch with her husband.
If the visits annoy you, then limit them. If they give you satisfaction, ask for a more frequent visit.
If staying in the hospital is so annoying, ask for an earlier discharge home.
Overcome fatigue by accepting the help of others, do not do things that may wait, rest when your child is sleeping.
Use the time of feeding to discharge, take care and, or feed the baby lying in bed or sitting in a comfortable chair with legs up.
Use a lactating mother’s diet to stay healthy and fit.
Avoid sugar (especially when combined with chocolate), as it can act as a factor in causing depression.
Allow me to persuade myself to take food outside the house, if this is not possible, then allow me to help myself, that is, let my husband prepare food or order food. Dress elegantly, create a mood, as is the case in restaurants with candlelight and light music.
Take care of your appearance. Look good and you will feel good. A whole day walking in a bathrobe, not
combed, can lead anyone to feel unwell. In the morning, before your husband goes to work, take a shower, comb your hair and do makeup. Buy yourself some pretty thing.
Get out of the house. Go for a walk with the baby, or if you can leave the baby with someone, get out yourself.
A set of physical exercises will help you drive away postpartum sadness, as well as get rid of sagging, which can increase your depression.
If you think that society will have a good effect on this “misfortune” of yours, then meet with the young mothers you know and share your feelings. If you do not have close women who have recently given birth, then try to establish new contacts (in the park, in the pool, with those women with whom you attended courses before childbirth), and whenever possible, meet as often as possible.
If your “trouble” requires treatment alone, then take care of this. although depression feeds on loneliness, some scholars deny this, precisely in relation to postpartum depression.
When guests visit you and sympathize with you, avoid them, as this only worsens your condition.
Do not treat your husband too cold. Consent in the postpartum period is immensely important for both of you (the husband may also succumb to postpartum depression, and may need you just like you do)

Postpartum depression extremely rarely requires pharmacological treatment. The need for this applies to one in a thousand women. If your depression lasts more than two weeks and is additionally accompanied by insomnia, a lack of appetite, a sense of hopelessness, and even thoughts of suicide, aggression against a child, consult a doctor.

The fact that you do not suffer from postpartum depression does not mean that this problem does not concern your family. Studies show that if a wife suffers from this type of depression, the husband is not at risk, while at the same time when the wife feels great, the possibility of depression in fathers / husbands dramatically increases. Therefore, make sure that your husband does not suffer from low mood (depression).

Postpartum depression

Posted on June 10, 2020  in Uncategorized

Immediately after giving birth, many women begin to feel such a strong euphoria that they seem ready to love the whole white world. However, this mood does not last long. Replace completely different sensations: suddenly a state of anxiety and inexplicable irritability, then aggressiveness and causeless tearfulness rolls over. It would seem that a woman should have received exclusively positive emotions from the state of motherhood, but it wasn’t there ….

Anxiety, depression, fatigue, irritability, panic attacks, a sense of unreality of what is happening, poor sleep, loss of appetite and libido, helplessness in household chores, loss of love for your child are all signs of a fairly common postpartum depression. And its consequence is that a woman ceases to experience joy from her own motherhood, ceases to monitor her appearance, avoids communication, and may even become addicted to drugs or alcohol.

Three types of postpartum crises are distinguished, these are:
postpartum spleen, which appears during the first few days after birth, when you want to cry, there is a feeling of oppression, insecurity, fear, self-doubt;

mild depression, which is accompanied by attacks of helplessness, loneliness, fear, and lasts from several days to a week;

chronic depression: bouts of anxiety, fear, when ordinary activities seem completely unbearable. Such depression develops during the first three months after childbirth and can persist for a whole year, and sometimes even three to four years.
By the way, modern medicine today considers depression as a natural reaction of the body to childbirth and motherhood. Therefore, a young mother should be mentally prepared in advance for the fact that after the birth of her baby, her feelings may become somewhat unstable and rapidly change in different directions: from joy to despair and vice versa. Their relatives should be warned about this so that they do not perceive such a state solely as the vagaries of a spoiled lady and help the woman survive this period as easily and quickly as possible.

So, you are under stress. What to do?

Remember that the onset of motherhood will require you to reconsider your entire way of life,
as a result of which you will simply have to adapt to a lot. And if earlier you, for example, could not have imagined a day without a morning newspaper and regularly watching television programs, then with the appearance of a baby in your house you will have to forget about all this: you simply will not have time for this. And in order not to feel divorced from the whole world, listen to the radio (you can do this by doing any housework), and you will always be sufficiently informed about the most significant events taking place in politics, culture, and music.

Try to prioritize and do not try to keep the house in the same state; you simply don’t have enough strength to maintain an impeccable cleanliness. Encourage yourself that chaos reigned in your once so tidy house – a temporary phenomenon.

Do not forget that you just need to find time to be alone with yourself, to wander around the shops, look at a girlfriend or go to the beauty parlor to find balance and connection with the outside world. Therefore, do not be shy to at least occasionally ask your loved ones to sit with your child and do not take into account what
people think about you.

No less important for you after childbirth and rest. Try to set certain hours for rest, preferably if they have a daytime nap. If you do not want to sleep, just relax, close your eyes and do not communicate with anyone at this time. Have a cup of mint or chamomile tea. These herbs have soothing properties. And limit your intake of caffeine, which increases nervousness.

While the baby is sleeping, read a good book. Reading is one of the best ways to avoid stress. Rent a comedy cassette. Laughter perfectly relieves stress.

Turn off your phone and take a hot bath with aromatic oils. Turn on pleasant music and ask your husband to give you the massage necessary to relieve muscle tension and improve your mood. And in order to enhance relaxation, add a few drops of aromatic oil to the massage oil.
The soothing properties are ylang-ylang, sandalwood, lemon, orange, lavender and chamomile oils. By the way, often a similar massage session can turn into a wonderful intimate love scene.

Take time to do gymnastics. It has already been proven that if you do gymnastics during the period of depression, then the emotional state improves much faster. And regular gymnastics reduces stress, fatigue, aggressiveness and depression, gives vigor and uplifting. In addition, exercises distract from everyday worries. Performing them, you can at least temporarily forget about your problems.

Often, the cause for depression can be the feeling that you have become a housewife. In this case, hire a nanny or send the child to a day nursery, and you immediately go to work. And most importantly – do not hesitate to consult a psychologist, no one will consider you abnormal. Remember that if you do not understand what is bothering you now, then it will be much more difficult to do this.

Depression … with a female character

Posted on June 6, 2020  in Uncategorized

It has long been observed that women suffer from depression much more often than men. Why is this happening?

Here are the main reasons:
women are more emotional and sensitive;
our ability to reflect is more pronounced, that is, we are more inclined to think about problems, especially in interpersonal relationships;
The “weak” gender actually carries a double burden: work and household chores.

It is not surprising that, as a result, sad thoughts and the inability to fully rest more and more often lead Russian women to depression. Moreover, “female depression” is getting younger: the average age of those prone to this emotional “malfunction” is from 30 to 40 years.

Mood, depression, stress …

How to determine whether you have depression or maybe just mood swings?

With a “real” depression:
you are indifferent to what previously surprised and pleased you.
A bad mood accompanies you constantly.
There are difficulties with concentration.
You become very indecisive, often experiencing anxiety and anxiety.
Significantly reduced appetite.
Sleep disturbances, insomnia appear.

If you observe most of these symptoms for more than two weeks, you can talk about depression.

Do not grab the pills!

Antidepressants, even supposedly “natural”, that is, consisting of plant components, are not at all a panacea for this ailment. Why? In depression, we usually distance ourselves from others, closing ourselves and experiencing our imaginary failures. Pills make a person as if indifferent to everything. You will not be sad, but you will not be happy either. Such artificial indifference does not contribute to the harmonization of relations with the outside world, since nature provides for a person to have a very rich spectrum of emotions. In addition, antidepressants can be addictive. You need to understand: they do not affect the internal source of depression, but only dull the severity of the reactions.

Do not get used to sleeping pills – otherwise soon you will not be able to fall asleep without a couple of pills, and you will have to painstakingly restore the natural rhythms of relaxation for a long time. Try to turn to the natural sources of nutrients – at first it will support the body. For example, the mood can stabilize the use of pineapples – they have vitamin B6 and serotonin. Oranges, red peppers, carrots are useful for brain function. Focus on apples, grapes and tomatoes.

As for drinks, you can only drink coffee and tea in the morning. Green tea is healthier than black. In the evening, it is better to drink milk, kefir or juices. You can use aromatic oils of lavender, juniper, rosemary, citrus.

Family and work

The stereotype of a successful modern woman holds her responsible both for her own career
and for the well-being of her family. Therefore, most often the source of traumatic experiences for her are events in her personal life and in the workplace.

A common cause of depression is divorce or separation from a man. Usually this greatly affects women’s self-esteem, especially if the man himself was not stingy with the charges. What you can do:
Resist the urge to recall the details of the conflict every free minute. Choose a time, take pity on yourself, surrender to your memories. Think about everything that happened. And try not to “let” sad thoughts into your inner world anymore, let them gradually move away, remaining in the past.
For the same reason, think over the answers to possible questions from your friends (“Why did you break up?”). Better if they are concise enough – the details are useless.
But with a loved one (maybe a girlfriend?), Speak everything in great detail. What he said, what you answered … This will help you realize and accept the fact that this period in your life is still over.
Distraction is simply necessary. “Going to work with your head” is a good way out. Perhaps you have long wanted to go on a trip (if possible) or to learn something new.

Of course, only the female lot and postpartum depression. The reasons for its occurrence are somewhat different.
As a rule, depression occurs if a young mother is constantly confronted with a lack of understanding of others: it is generally accepted that now is the happiest time in her life, while it is difficult for her from a lack of sleep and worries about the baby’s condition. Long and difficult childbirth, material difficulties, possible unwillingness to have a baby increase the likelihood of depression.

The main thing that mom needs to do is to establish a strict daily routine, be sure to set aside time “for herself”: sleep, rest and exercise. Such a measure will allow you to get rid of the feeling of “squirrels in the wheel.” Over time, proper nutrition, movement, walks, communication with the child will do their job – the body systems will begin to work in concert, and depression will pass.

But what if work becomes the cause of depression?

The likelihood of depression “for official reasons” is increased by:
adverse working conditions: noisy or stuffy room, uncomfortable workplace;
chaotic rhythm of work, when periods of heavy load are replaced by a lack of affairs; irregular working hours;
tensions in the team, conflicts with management or colleagues;
lack of prospects, the possibility of promotion or salary increase.

Of course, quitting is a rather radical option, but if deep down you thought about it before you were overtaken by depression, maybe this is really an option. Vacation will also help (during which you should not be visited by a single thought about work).
But if neither is possible, try the following.

Try to ensure a quality rest during the day. Be sure to use the lunch break for its intended purpose – for communication and lunch itself. At the end of the day, take stock, make plans for tomorrow and forget about business affairs until the next morning.

If you are considered an indispensable employee, this can suit everyone except yourself. Think about the responsibilities that you perform. Are there among them “superfluous” – that which can be delegated to others? Do you take the burden of other people’s affairs?

In dealing with stress, positive communication with colleagues will also help. Do not lock yourself in, keep in touch with those who work around. Well, if you have the opportunity to discuss your problems with someone, this will help you look at them from the side. The opinion of colleagues here is especially valuable, because we are talking about a problem that arose precisely because of work.

Choose the method of relaxation most pleasant for you (breathing techniques, a walk, listening to special melodies) and apply it as necessary.

And try with an effort of will to refuse excessive perfectionism, in particular, forgive yourself mistakes.

Vegetative Disorders and Depression

Posted on June 2, 2020  in Uncategorized

At a general practitioner appointment, patients with depressive syndromes make up more than 30%. This figure is probably even higher for neurological practice. It should be borne in mind that patients who are actively complaining of a decreased mood, depression, depression, lack of interest in life, usually do not go to a therapist or a neurologist, but turn to a psychiatrist in a clinic or in a neuropsychiatric clinic. At an appointment with an internist, patients complain primarily about somatovegetative disorders. It is known how difficult the diagnosis and treatment of persistent cardialgia, prolonged and “inexplicable” hyperthermia, constant shortness of breath, persistent sensation of nausea, debilitating sweating, dizziness, dramatic and frightening patients with vegetative paroxysms or, in modern terminology, “panic attacks” (PA) and .d. As a rule, with active and targeted questioning in these patients, it is possible to identify sleep disturbances, appetite, weight loss, decreased libido, constant weakness, fatigue, decreased interest in the environment and other symptoms that indicate the presence of depressive disorders. Subclinical manifestations of depression in such patients also led to the corresponding terminology: “hidden”, “masked”, “larvated”, “atypical”, “alexithymic”, “depression without depression”.

It is known that autonomic disorders of central genesis or psycho-vegetative syndromes can manifest themselves in the form of both paroxysmal and permanent disorders [1].
Paroxysmal autonomic disorders

Vegetative crisis (VK), or PA, is the most striking and dramatic paroxysmal manifestation of the psycho-vegetative syndrome.
Terminology

The name “vegetative crisis”, traditional for domestic medicine, emphasizes that vegetative symptoms are of primary importance in an attack. In foreign medicine, especially in English, the leading role in autonomic paroxysm is given to emotional-affective disorders (fear, anxiety), which accordingly is reflected in the terms used – “anxiety attacks”, “panic attacks”.
Diagnostic criteria

The term Panic Attack has gained worldwide recognition today due to the classification of diseases proposed by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980 (DSM-III). According to the latter, PAs are the main manifestation of Panic Disorders (PR). Subsequently, this classification was refined and is currently in its latest version – DSM-IV – and in the International Classification of Diseases – ICD-10 [2, 3] – the following criteria for the diagnosis of PR are adopted.

A. Recurrence of seizures in which intense fear or discomfort in combination with four or more of the following symptoms develop suddenly and reach their peak within 10 minutes:

– pulsations, palpitations, rapid pulse;

– sweating;

– chills, tremors;

– feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath;

– difficulty breathing, choking;

– pain or discomfort in the left half of the chest;

– nausea or abdominal discomfort;

– dizziness, instability;

– weakness, lightheadedness, fainting state;

– a feeling of numbness or tingling (paresthesia);

– waves of heat and cold;

– a feeling of derealization, depersonalization;

– fear of death;

– fear of losing your mind or committing an uncontrolled act.

B. The occurrence of PA is not due to the direct physiological effect of any substances (for example, drug dependence or taking drugs) or somatic diseases (for example, thyrotoxicosis).

B. In most cases, PA does not occur as a result of other anxiety disorders, such as Phobias – Social and Simple, Obsessive-Phobic Disorders, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders.

ICD-10 PR includes rubrics of “anxiety” and “phobic” disorders, which in turn are included in the class of “Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders”.
Epidemiology

According to statistics, from 1.5 to 4% of the adult population suffer from PR during certain periods of their lives. Among those seeking primary care, patients with PA make up 6%. The disease makes its debut most often at the age of 20-30 years and is extremely rare before 15 and after 65 years. Women suffer 2–3 times more often than men [4].
The main clinical manifestations

The criteria necessary for the diagnosis of PA can be summarized as follows:

– paroxysmality;

– polysystemic autonomic symptoms;

– emotional and affective disorders.

Obviously, the main manifestations of PA are autonomic and emotional disorders. Already from the above list of symptoms, it is evident that autonomic symptoms affect various body systems: these are respiratory, cardiac, vascular reactions (central and peripheral), changes in thermoregulation, sweating, gastrointestinal and vestibular functions. An objective examination, as a rule, reveals a rise in blood pressure (sometimes to high values ​​and more often during the first attacks), severe tachycardia, often an increase in extrasystoles, and there may be a rise in temperature to a subfebrile or febrile level. All these symptoms, arising suddenly and “without reason,” contribute to the appearance and fixation of another group of symptoms – emotional-affective disorders. The range of the latter is unusually wide. So, a sense of causeless fear, reaching the point of panic, usually occurs during the first attack, and then in a less pronounced form is repeated in subsequent attacks. Sometimes the panic of the first PA subsequently transforms into specific fears – fear of myocardial infarction, stroke, loss of consciousness, fall, madness, etc. In some patients, the intensity of fear (even in the first attacks) may be minimal, but nevertheless, with careful questioning, patients report a feeling of internal tension, anxiety, anxiety, a feeling that “something will explode inside.” In neurological and therapeutic practice, the emotional manifestations of an attack can differ significantly from a typical situation. So, in an attack, the patient may not experience fear, anxiety; it is no coincidence that such PAs are called “panic without panic” or “non-insurance PAs” [5]. Some patients experience a feeling of irritation in the attack, sometimes reaching a degree of aggression, in some cases – a feeling of melancholy, depression, hopelessness, report a “causeless” cry at the time of the attack. It is the emotional-affective symptoms that give the attack such an unpleasant and even repulsive character.

In a large category of PR patients, the structure of the attack is not limited to the autonomic-emotional symptoms described above, and then the doctor can detect another type of disorder, which we arbitrarily called “atypical”. They can be represented by local or diffuse pains (headaches, pains in the abdomen, in the spine, etc.), muscle tension, vomiting, senestopathic sensations (sensation of heat, “frostbite”, “stirring”, “transfusion” of something , “Voids”) and (or) psychogenic (hysterical) neurological symptoms (sensation of “coma in the throat”, weakness in the arm or leg, impaired speech or voice, consciousness, etc.) [6].

In the interictal period, patients usually develop secondary psycho-vegetative syndromes, the structure of which is largely determined by the nature of paroxysm. In patients with PA, the so-called agoraphobic syndrome develops soon after the onset of paroxysms. “Agoraphobia” literally means “fear of open spaces,” but in the case of panic patients, fear applies to any situation that is potentially “threatened” for the development of an attack. Such situations may be staying in a crowd, in a store, on the subway or any other form of transport, moving away from home for some distance or staying at home alone, etc. Agoraphobia determines the appropriate behavior that avoids discomfort: patients stop using transport, do not stay alone at home, do not move far from home and ultimately become almost completely socially disabled.

The fears of patients with PA can relate to a certain disease with which, according to the patient, his symptoms are associated with him: for example, fear of a heart attack, stroke, etc. Obsessive fears force the patient to constantly measure the pulse, check blood pressure, do repeated electrocardiograms and even study the relevant medical literature. In such cases, we are talking about the development of obsessive fears or hypochondriac syndrome.

As secondary syndromes, depressive disorders often develop, manifested by a decrease in social activity, interest in the outside world, increased fatigue, constant weakness, decreased appetite, sleep disturbances, and sexual motivations. In patients with demonstrative seizures, as a rule, hysterical personality disorders with clinical manifestations of hysteria in the somatic or neurological sphere are revealed.
Permanent vegetative disorders

By permanent autonomic disorders are meant subjective and objectively recorded violations of autonomic functions that are permanent or occur sporadically and are not combined with autonomic paroxysms (panic attacks). These disorders can occur predominantly in one system or have a distinct polysystemic character. Permanent autonomic disorders can be manifested by the following syndromes:

– in the cardiovascular system – cardiorhythmic, cardialgic, cardiosenestopathic, as well as arterial hyper- and hypotension or amphotonia;

– in the respiratory system – hyperventilation disorders: a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath, feeling of suffocation, shortness of breath, etc .;

– in the gastrointestinal system – dyspeptic disorders, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, belching, abdominal pains, dyskinetic phenomena, constipation, diarrhea;

– in thermoregulatory and sweating systems – non-infectious subfebrile condition, periodic “chills”, diffuse or local hyperhidrosis, etc .;

– in vascular regulation – by distal acrocyanosis and hypothermia, Raynaud’s phenomenon, vascular cephalalgia, lipothymic states, waves of heat and cold;

– in the vestibular system – unsystematic dizziness, sensations of instability.
Vegetative Disorders and Depression

There is an extensive literature on the relationship of depression and anxiety. This problem is also relevant for PR, since a combination of PR and depression is possible.

When examining a patient suffering from PR, the doctor should be wary of possible endogenous depression, since the risk of suicidal actions requires immediate intervention by a psychiatrist.

According to modern criteria, depression is characterized by a decrease in mood, a decrease or lack of interest or pleasure, combined with a decrease in appetite or an increase in body weight, a decrease or increase in body weight, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor inhibition or agitation, a feeling of fatigue or loss of energy, a sense of worthlessness, inadequate feeling guilt, diminished ability to think or concentrate, and repeated thoughts of death or suicide.

For the clinician, the question of the nature of depression is important – is it primary or secondary? To resolve this issue, two diagnostic criteria are important: the time factor and the severity of depressive symptoms. R. Jacob et al. [7] suggest using both criteria and establish which of the disorders occurs without the other in the patient’s history. If episodes of depression appeared before PR, and PA only appeared during the period of depression, then PR are secondary to depression. If depression appears only in the presence of PR and, as a rule, at a certain stage of their development, then, most likely, we are talking about primary PR and secondary depression.

It was shown that patients with depression with PA had a longer course, often had an endogenous, agitated type and had a worse prognosis, i.e. their depression was more severe.

It is believed that secondary depression is often found in PR. The following pattern of PR dynamics is considered typical: panic attacks – agoraphobia – hypochondria – secondary depression. In a study by A. Breier [4] of 60 patients with AF with PR, depression was detected in 70%, and in 57% of cases it occurred after the first PA. According to some reports, secondary depressive fouling is observed in 70 – 90% of cases with prolonged existence of PR [8].

Since in primary depression, especially its severe (acute) forms, the risk of suicide is high, and the use of psychotherapy is difficult, differential diagnosis of PR and depression with PA is necessary. If you suspect a primary depression, it is necessary to focus on weight loss, severe impaired concentration of attention and sleep disorders, gross motivational disorders. Secondary depressions have a milder course and usually regress with relief of PR.

Currently, the pathogenetic relationship between PR and depression is being actively discussed, the reason for this is the frequent combination of PR and depression and the obvious effectiveness in both cases of antidepressant drugs. However, a number of facts refute the assumption of a single disease: these are primarily various effects when exposed to biological markers. So, sleep deprivation improves the condition of patients with major depression and worsens with PR; the dexamethasone test is positive in the first case and negative in the second, the administration of lactic acid naturally causes PA in patients with PR or in patients with depression in combination with PR, but not in patients suffering only major depression. Thus, discussing the combination of PR with major depression, it can be assumed that the presence of depression is a factor contributing to the manifestation of PR, although the mechanisms of this interaction are still unclear.

Permanent autonomic disorders also occur in the structure of various affective and emotional-psychopathological syndromes. In most cases, we are talking about depressive disorders (masked, somatized and other variants) or mixed syndromes, among which anxiety-depressive, depressive-hypochondriacal and hysterodressive disorders dominate. According to A.B. Smulevich et al. [9], hysterical depression is one of the most common psychogenic reactions, accompanied by severe somatovegetative and hysterical neurological symptoms. Most often, such manifestations of the disease are observed in the menopause.
Therapy for psycho-vegetative disorders

Currently, in the treatment of vegetative syndromes of both paroxysmal and permanent nature, the following groups of drugs are used:

– antidepressants (BP);

– tranquilizers (typical and atypical benzodiazepines – ABD);

– small antipsychotics (MN);

– vegetotropic drugs.

It has already been proved with the help of many controlled (double-blind, placebo-controlled) studies that the basic drugs in the treatment of autonomic disorders are blood pressure, which are used as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs [10]. It should be emphasized that blood pressure therapy is indicated not only when autonomic disorders are a manifestation of depression, including masked, but also when autonomic disorders (permanent and paroxysmal) occur within the framework of anxiety and anxiety-phobic disorders, even if obvious depression is not detected (for example , PR with agoraphobia), in cases of mixed anxiety-depressive and hysterically depressive (a combination of somatoform and depressive) disorders. This situation reflects current trends in psychopharmacotherapy, where blood pressure takes the leading place, and tranquilizers (mainly typical benzodiazepines) are given the role of symptomatic, supportive, corrective therapy. The exception is ADB (alprazolam and clonazepam), which in some cases can also be used as basic pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotics are used as additional drugs if combination therapy is needed. Vegetotropic drugs (adrenergic blockers, vestibulolytics, etc.) are usually administered as symptomatic therapy or to correct the side effects of blood pressure.

It should be noted that the use of any psychotropic drugs should be combined with vegetotropic therapy, especially if the applied drug in addition has mechanisms of cellular neurotropic effects (neurometabolic cerebroprotection). In particular, the appointment of vinpocetine (cavinton) allows, due to these effects, significantly improve treatment results.

Pharmacotherapy of patients with paroxysmal and permanent psycho-vegetative disorders involves several therapeutic strategies: relief of attacks (PA); prevention of recurrence of paroxysms; relief of permanent psycho-vegetative syndromes.
PA stopping

The tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine group (relanium, tazepam, phenazepam, xanax, etc.) are the most effective means for stopping PA. However, with this symptomatic method of treatment, the dose of the drug has to be increased over time, and the irregular intake of benzodiazepines and the associated recoil phenomenon can contribute to increased PA, progression and chronicity of the disease.
PA re-occurrence prevention

Numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have convincingly shown that two groups of drugs — AD and ABD — are most effective in preventing PA. [10-12]

Today, the range of ADs effective against PR has expanded significantly and includes at least 5 groups of drugs: tricyclic antidepressants – imipramine (melipramine), amitriptyline (tryptisol, nortriptyline), clomipramine (anafranil, gidifen); four-cyclic antidepressants – mianserin (miansan, lerivon); monoamine oxidase inhibitors – moclobemide (aurorix); antidepressants with an insufficiently known mechanism of action – tianeptine (coaxil, stablon); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – fluoxetine, fluvoxamine (avoxin), sertraline (zoloft), paroxetine (paxil), citalopram (cipramil).

Significant interest is the last antidepressant from this group – citalopram. High selectivity of the drug and low potential for interactions, a favorable profile of side effects, coupled with high efficiency, allow cipramil to be considered as the drug of choice for many depressive conditions, in particular, in general somatic and gerontological practice. The presence of citalopram, along with timoleptic, also has a clear anxiolytic effect indicates the possibility of using citalopram for anxiety disorders and, in particular, for panic attacks. Currently, two Russian clinics have already begun studying the effectiveness of citalopram in panic disorders.

The most likely theory is that which links the anti-panic effectiveness of blood pressure with a predominant effect on the serotonergic systems of the brain. A positive effect can be achieved by using small daily doses of drugs. However, when using blood pressure, especially tricyclic, in the first decade of treatment, exacerbation of symptoms can be observed – anxiety, anxiety, agitation, and sometimes an increase in PA. Adverse reactions to tricyclic blood pressure are largely associated with anticholinergic effects and can be manifested by severe tachycardia, extrasystole, dry mouth, dizziness, tremor, constipation, weight gain. The above symptoms can lead to forced refusal of treatment at the first stages, especially since the clinical effect usually occurs 2 to 3 weeks after the start of therapy. Significantly fewer adverse reactions are observed when using drugs of the SSRI group. Their best tolerance, the possibility of a single daily intake and the painlessness of rapid withdrawal at the end of treatment made these drugs leaders in the treatment of PR.

Atypical benzodiazepines include clonazepam (antelepsin, rivotril) and alprazolam (xanax, cassadan). It has been shown that benzodiazepines (both typical and atypical) enhance the action of GABA (g-aminobutyric acid), which is the main inhibitory mediator in the central nervous system. A significant advantage of this group of drugs is the rapid appearance of the clinical effect (3 – 4 days). There is evidence that in high doses (6-8 mg) alprazolam has an antidepressant effect.

The choice of drug is determined mainly by the clinical picture of the disease and the characteristics of the drug. If PA appeared recently and there is no agoraphobic syndrome, then it is advisable to start therapy with ABD. If PA are combined with agoraphobia or other secondary syndromes (depression, phobic syndrome, hypochondria), then the use of blood pressure is necessary. First of all, it is recommended to use blood pressure with minimal side effects. In some cases, the combined use of AD and ABD is required, since ABD, firstly, provides an early clinical effect (almost as early as in the 1st week of treatment), and secondly, helps to stop PA before the onset of AD.
Treatment of permanent psycho-vegetative disorders

When choosing tactics for the treatment of permanent psycho-vegetative disorders, they proceed primarily from the nature of the emotional-psychopathological syndrome. In the case of depressive disorders, the main, and often the only, drugs are blood pressure. SSRIs are currently preferred. When depression is combined with other syndromes, combined therapy is used – a combination of blood pressure with tranquilizers (ABD) or small antipsychotics: meleryl (sonapax), teralen, neuleptyl, eglonil, chlorprotixen, etaperazine.

An individual selection of pharmacological preparations, the use of small doses, and, if necessary, a combination with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and social adaptation allow us today to successfully cope with such widespread and socially maladaptive suffering as psycho-vegetative syndromes.

Acne Remedy Cures Depression

Posted on May 29, 2020  in Uncategorized

As studies have shown, an acne remedy based on vitamin A has another useful property – treat depression. In this regard, the Directorate for Medicines and Food Products is going to more strictly monitor the implementation of this tool.

The study organizers found that in young people from twelve to nineteen years old, this tool prevents the development of depressive states. In other words, in these individuals depression is much less common than those who treat acne with antibiotics. The fact is that the vast majority of American teenagers suffer from acne and other age-related skin rashes. 

Depression of adolescence, as a rule, begins at the same time with the formation of rashes on the skin. In the study, specialists tried to establish a connection between acne, depression and suicides of adolescents. Most doctors are of the opinion that an anti-acne medicine is not harmful to health, but, on the contrary, helps to eliminate depression.

The remaining representatives of science and medicine believe that the drug should be banned, since doctors can prescribe this drug to adolescents not for the purpose of treating acne, but to fight depression. In addition, it is suggested that the drug can develop a person’s addiction.  

As a result, the study resulted in the introduction of a huge number of restrictions on the use of this tool, but it was not withdrawn from the implementation.

Scientists have found the cause of schizophrenia

Posted on May 25, 2020  in Uncategorized

English, American and Finnish scientists have found the cause of schizophrenia. After a huge research work, they found that changing a small area on the sixteenth chromosome can lead to schizophrenia, namely, in people with a doubling of this area, the likelihood of schizophrenia increases tenfold.

This disease, according to psychologists themselves, is still the most serious disease. There are several dozen conditions that are connected with schizophrenia in one way or another. Problems with the perception of the world and contact with it, delirium, depression, apathy, various types of hallucinations – all this can be both a sign of schizophrenia and symptoms of many other diseases. For this reason, a serious problem arises in making a diagnosis, which is very important in any disease, and even more so in psychology. As they say, scientists have found the cause of schizophrenia, although this cannot be clearly stated. There are still many questions regarding the relationship of schizophrenia with heredity and genetics.

In a new study, on a global scale, both healthy people and patients with various forms of schizophrenia took part. The DNA of patients contains a set of specific genes. It is worth noting that this is not the only disease that is caused by a set of extra genes in humans. In schizophrenia, however, not a fully defined chromosome is repeated, but only a small portion of it. It was in it that scientists found the cause of schizophrenia. There are not many genes in this interval, so it will be easier for scientists to identify the source of the disease. This fragment of the chromosome also appeared in earlier studies, however, with a slight difference. In a disease such as autism, that portion of the chromosome is missing from the patient’s DNA.

Female depression recognized as fatal disease

Posted on May 21, 2020  in Uncategorized

Recently, the word “depression” is often heard from television screens, from conversations, from doctors. After years of research by psychologists and psychiatrists from around the world, it became clear that it was depression that was to blame for many demographic ills. This disease was recognized as the main cause of such troubles as the suicide net, the short life expectancy of the female population even in developed countries, and the poor quality of life of some segments of the population.

According to the research, it became clear that depression is especially severe for women. Over the past decade, the incidence of this disease has increased by about 17 times, and doctors have called this psychological state a “silent epidemic.” She got this name for the implicit severity of symptoms, which sometimes can be manifested only in a reduced mood.

It is the stagnant perennial depressive states that have the greatest negative impact on the duration and quality of life and living conditions of women around the world. The harm from it is even stronger than from many deadly diseases such as cancer. Depression is also common among men, but its manifestations are associated with age periods. The main problem of this disease is its treatment. Few people seek qualified medical help, considering the constant bad mood and the lack of an active interest in life as insufficient reason for excitement and a trip to a psychologist. Therefore, many people could have avoided problems in their personal and social life, just by contacting a doctor at the time.

One reason for postpartum depression is lack of money

Posted on May 17, 2020  in Uncategorized

More than fifty percent of young mothers who bring up newborn babies in conditions of low material security suffer from postpartum depression to one degree or another. Of course, this negatively affects both the mother herself and the small child. Postpartum depression affects many mothers. According to statistics, more than forty percent of all women suffer from it.

The results of a new study, conducted in the form of a survey by specialists from the United States, showed that more than half of young mothers living in conditions of severe material need were younger than twenty-three years. The study involved almost fifteen thousand families. In addition, postpartum depression often pushed new mothers to drink alcohol and drugs.

According to statistics, one out of ten babies born in a family without a livelihood is brought up by a mother who suffers from postpartum depression. In addition, these children are often breastfed for only four months. According to the organizers of the study, almost seventy percent of women need the help of a qualified psychologist. However, only less than thirty percent apply for such specialized assistance. Experts believe that this problem deserves closer attention from the authorities and representatives of the Ministry of Health.