In bipolar disorder, manic and depressive phases alternate, which, by many indications, are opposite to each other. Therefore, in the diagnosis of the disorder, two scales of symptoms are used. A person should be expressed in different periods of those and other signs.
Typical symptoms of mania ( hypomania )
- Heightened mood, from uplifted to feelings of elation and euphoria. High mood is not associated with external events, even very unpleasant incidents can not spoil it.
- High energy. The patient feels full of strength and ready for any achievements. Talented people in a state of easy mania can work around the clock, and with good results.
- Raising energy causes a flash of turbulent activity. This is noticeable in all human behavior: he moves quickly, actively gesticulates, fusses, hurries somewhere.
- Speech fast. Until recently, man was laconic, and now it flows in a continuous stream. He speaks with confidence, with pressure. At the same time, it is easy to distract him from the main idea, and he instantly switches from one topic to another.
- Grand ideas. The “manic” brain works at higher speeds: it generates new ideas, finds harmony and meaning in everything. A “leap of ideas” appears: when a person cannot concentrate on one topic, images in his brain are replaced at a breakneck pace, and those around him with all their desire can no longer see the logic in his statements.
- The extreme manifestation of such a state is a bullshit of greatness. In mania, it may seem to a person that he is brilliant, his ideas are perfect, and he is on the verge of a great discovery.
- Sleep disturbance. The need for sleep is dramatically reduced. People can sleep for 2-3 hours and not feel tired.
- Hypersexuality . In mania, a person feels particularly attractive. He begins to flirt inappropriately, dress defiantly, look for new connections, without worrying about the consequences.
- Rasters of large sums of money. In a maniacal rise, people can gain credits, spend all their savings on entertainment, and consider it an excellent solution.
- Lack of self-criticism. In a strong mania, man is unable to adequately assess his behavior and control it.
- Aggressiveness, irritability. Surrounding people in this state seem stupid and slow, their attempts to reason with a person with BAR cause a strong protest.
Typical symptoms of depression
- Low mood without external reasons. A person is depressed, even if everything goes well in his life, constantly experiencing anguish, hopelessness, helplessness.
- The patient believes that it is he who is to blame for problems at home and at work, he feels himself a burden for his relatives.
- Suicidal thoughts and plans. If such a state is delayed, the person begins to think about the meaninglessness of his life, which brings only pain and frustration. These are not just complaints: suicide attempts during a depression are very common.
- Fatigue, fatigue. A person experiences constant overwork and gets tired of even the easiest work. Some patients sleep all day, others can not sleep because of internal tension and anxiety. In severe depression, the patient completely loses working capacity. His strength may not even be enough to take care of himself.
- Loss of interest in matters that used to be liked ( anhedonia – loss of ability to have fun). A person becomes indifferent to his surroundings, his close people annoy and tire him. In this state, patients often withdraw into themselves and isolate themselves from society.
- Inhibition of thinking, speech, movements.
- High anxiety. A depressed person constantly expects the worst: in his life, in his family’s life, in business, and is afraid of any changes.
- Exacerbation of health problems. The physical well-being of a person is also deteriorating. The most common somatic signs of depression are dry mouth, stomach pain, palpitations, headaches, muscle aches, shortness of breath, and frequent urination.
how to distinguish schizophrenia from manic depressive psychosis ?
Despite the fact that today the clinical picture of the development of schizophrenia at the physiological and psychological level is described in sufficient detail, the symptoms of mental disorders are a moving phenomenon. Therefore, in some cases, a consolidated opinion of a single specialist, patient monitoring for several weeks and an extensive history (preliminary data collection), which, besides previous examinations and appointments, would include general information about the patient’s personal life, his social activity, the first episodes of the disease, etc.
Most often, both in the public consciousness and individual specialists, they confuse schizophrenia with bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive psychosis (an outdated and unaccepted designation to date). Indeed, both diseases have similar features in the clinical picture:
for example, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are endogenous, that is, genetic, hereditary ;
- both diseases are accompanied by both depressive episodes and psychotic episodes (impulsive, spontaneous, chaotic activity),
- and in both cases, characteristic changes are observed at the organic level – primarily in the structure and metabolism in the cerebral cortex.
But these are just common features. In essence, schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis are two different diseases. And although none of them can be called preferable or easy, the correct pharmacological support and the content of the course of psychotherapy depend on the exact statement of the diagnosis.
At the Matzpen clinic , a psychiatrist and a psychotherapist simultaneously work with a patient whose diagnosis is subject to doubt, and the final diagnosis is made at a general consultation of specialists. It is fair to note that the diagnosis that the patient or his relatives are counting on is not always confirmed . However, a complete and independent examination in any case will help to clarify the clinical picture of the patient and the optimal program of his treatment.
In particularly controversial cases, during the collection of anamnesis, special psychological tests can be assigned to shed light on the dynamics of his personality structure and internal conflicts, and particular thinking, which in turn is important for the subsequent psychotherapy of the disorder.
Rules of life
If you bipolar upset you have to to master new ones regulations of life .
In this even there is their pros : you have Now there is serious cause to begin new life more healthy and informed .
Much depends on from medication and adequacy physician, but without your his own active of participation Effect from treatment will be much weaker . So that if pills you are taking not the first month and improvement everything not comes , you worth it think about your own an image life : everything whether you do right ?
This is really important. Mood fluctuations are strongly associated with the change of seasons, time of day, hours of sleep. And to make the mood smoother, the mode should be as stable as possible.
The activity and anxiety of mania make it difficult to sleep, and in the morning you are completely exhausted. With depression, you feel tired all the time. Often the strength and motivation are not enough even for the most simple case -n rochitat mail, make breakfast.
To get out of this circle, first of all you need to normalize your sleep.
This means that it matters to you:
- go to bed every night at the same time;
- waking up at the same time;
- sleep at least 8 hours;
- do not allow yourself to sleep during the day;
- refuse to hang on a computer, TV or smartphone at least an hour before bedtime;
- practice meditation, breathing exercises or a very light physical exercise (walk, Pilates exercises ) at night .
In hypomania really want to walk all night long. But you have to make a choice: one tumultuous party can turn into a whole week of depressive or anxious “hangover”.
Remember that a sudden change of work or sleep mode can cause deterioration. For example, a flight to another country, and then a few days of lack of sleep can cause mania.
In depression I want to sleep more, because you can afford 12 hours in bed, but do not lie down for a day without leaving the house. It will only get worse. When you are alone with yourself, you will become more and more immersed in depressive thoughts.
When you constantly feel tired, sport is the last thing that attracts you. But if you still have enough perseverance, health will soon change for the better.
Physical activity contributes to the development of hormones of good mood, it will ease the depression. After a load, it will be easier for you to fall asleep, which guarantees a better state of health the next day. Exercise stimulates mental abilities. Statistics show: people who exercise regularly, 25% less likely to suffer from depression.
But exercises help only if they are regular: at least three times a week for 30 minutes. If you are too tired, start with simple and slow exercises, with time you will have more energy. Or just go for a walk in the park – exercise in the fresh air is especially helpful.
Come to the sun often! It improves mood and gives a surge of strength. Solar radiation promotes the absorption of vitamin D , which is necessary for the brain to function.
Strong stress is your main enemy. The psyche of a person with bipolar disorder is much less stable and resistant to stress. It is easy to unbalance, and it is stress that can trigger another mania or depression.
Just take it for granted and do not demand heroic deeds from yourself. It is possible that tests really harden someone and make them stronger, but this is definitely not about manic-depressive people.
You, probably, noticed that during the periods of deterioration you are especially injured, even a trifle can ruin you or bring you to tears. If you do not take care of yourself in such moments, you can get to a nervous breakdown, to overcome the consequences of which it will take weeks in the hospital.
This should not be forgotten when you undertake a difficult job or another matter that requires great effort and responsibility.
In hypomania, it is very easy to gain a lot of projects that simply crush you with their weight when the depression begins.
This does not mean that you should not take responsibility for your family and work. This means that you need to soberly assess your strength, and do it during remission. Then provide for the possibility of regular rest and assistance in case of deterioration. Whatever you feel now, they will, sooner or later. It is better not to take on tasks that require constant stress: for example, when you are the only earner in the family or an indispensable specialist in the company.
Proper nutrition is also very important for keeping fit. There are products that will improve your condition and even reduce protrebnost in medicines, and there are those that can seriously harm.
Especially useful for the bipolar :
- Omega-3 acids
- Numerous studies have shown that Omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in fish and fish oil, alleviate symptoms . If you are a vegetarian, then try to eat more eggs and nuts, they also contain them.
- Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is necessary for the functioning of nerve cells and blood cells, it is he who ensures the normal functioning of the brain. Eat plenty of red meat, chicken, liver, fish, eggs, milk. Or pick the appropriate vitamins.
This microelement is found in whole grains, legumes, and dark green vegetables, such as spinach. Magnesium is a natural mood stabilizer, it soothes, like lithium, the most famous medicine for BAR.
W To feel energetic, you must provide themselves with water in abundance. That means 8-10 glasses of fluid a day. With exercise, you need to drink even more.
And, on the contrary, are harmful:
- Excess sugar
- Increasing the level of sugar in the blood can make your unstable mood even more chaotic, and sugar can also enhance the depressive phase. If you really need something sweet, eat fruits – natural sugars do not cause sudden jumps in blood glucose.
- Simple carbohydrates