Dementia, dementia, insanity
Dementia ( dementia – insane), a pathological process in the brain that occurs as a result of damage to neurons. The reasons for this phenomenon are different: vascular, metabolic, organic. Pathology is characterized by a deterioration in cognitive, cognitive functions: speech, thinking, memory, intelligence, understanding of new information, changes in character.
After the diagnosis is established, the patient needs help from both relatives and friends, and from doctors.
In the world there are more than 40 million people suffering from this disease. By 2050, this figure will exceed 100 million. The pessimistic forecast is associated with the general aging of the population. And a greater prevalence of risk factors for dementia.
Causes and provoking factors
Typically, senile dementia ( senilis – senile) in everyday life is called senile insanity. However, in addition to age-related degradation, dementia can be the result of other diseases:
- atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
- infectious and toxic encephalitis;
- damage to internal organs (kidneys, liver);
- intoxication with alcohol, drugs, poisons.
MRI data published in April 2013 in The Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease ” indicate that the development of dementia is influenced not only by high risk factors for stroke – hypertension, diabetes, but also by the presence of plaques and other focal changes in the brain. Often, various manifestations of depression and changes in character and behavior can be early precursors of this disease.
It should be borne in mind that a person not only loses previously acquired skills and knowledge. The ability to learn and acquire new skills is significantly worsened or even lost.
In the earliest stages of the onset of the disease, only an experienced neurologist can make a diagnosis.
Principles of diagnosis and treatment
It is important to notice signs of trouble in time. Then doctors have more time and resources for the timely diagnosis of cognitive disorders. More likely to find the cause, stop the progression of the disease.
Having established the cause of dementia, it is necessary to draw up courses of complex pathogenetic and etiotropic therapy. Without this, it is impossible to achieve positive results. It is important to correct blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, vitamins, testosterone and estrogens, etc.
We must not forget about regular physical and intellectual activity. We observe the diet (vitamins B, E, antioxidants) and rest (good sleep, walks).
Alcohol and smoking should be completely excluded.
Training of cognitive functions of the brain is achieved by playing chess, solving crosswords and puzzles. Actual reading books, communicating with other people, memorizing poetry, foreign words.
It is important to start active prevention and treatment at the initial stages of the onset of the disease. It is at this stage that one can count on good clinical results and slow down the further development of the disease.
Comments by Professor R.F. Gimranov .
The problem of dementia affects not only the patients themselves, but also their families.
Strange and inadequate actions, at the initial stages of the disease, are considered by relatives as manifestations of character, whims. But they should not be ignored. For example, mild depression may be an early symptom of personality degradation.
Timely diagnosis of the problem, and then proper treatment and prevention, can radically change the situation. And most importantly – to slow down the further development of the pathological process. For many years, the Clinic of Rehabilitation Neurology has been successfully performing brain stimulation in combination with standard therapy in such patients.