The role of biological rhythms

Posted on June 30, 2021  in Uncategorized

Changes in the body’s natural biological rhythms can also contribute to the development of depression. 

This refers primarily to the “sleep-wakefulness” rhythm, the rhythms of daily changes in body temperature, blood pressure, and hormone release. The cause of these disorders can be hidden in the nerve centers located in the region of the limbic system of the brain.    

Within the framework of the theory of “biological rhythms”, the decrease in the duration of sleep and the disruption of the normal electrical activity of the brain during this period are explained by the desynchronization of the physiological functions of the brain. It is believed that changes in the ratio of sleep phases occur due to a decrease in the activity of brain systems that are sensitive to the neurotransmitter serotonin.      

Either way, the normalization of the sleep-wake cycle always reduces the manifestations of depression. 

It is also important that the observance of the normal rhythm of food intake and a number of other habitual rhythms of daily life contributes to the restoration of sleep and, as a result, to the improvement of the state. At present, for the treatment of depression with success used drugs that restore the circadian rhythm.       

Problems of imperfection …

Posted on June 24, 2021  in Uncategorized

One of the most important factors in the formation of depression is the desire for complete perfection in everything. At the same time, the bar of claims rises to an almost unattainable height, and the assessment of one’s own successes and achievements constantly remains underestimated.          

Another fetish for people prone to depression: Fairness with a capital letter. It is of fundamental importance, and undeserved punishment can work like a detonator of explosives. A person prone to depression often compares himself with others and, of course, almost always loses, because in the world there is probably someone better than us, more beautiful, richer, etc. In addition, the nature of future depressive patient plays an important role pride, he of himself in high regard and believes that he is destined to achieve great things. The difference between “pride” and “pride”, I hope, is clear to everyone.               

There are many more factors that contribute to the development of depression. The constant search for the meaning of life and the inability to find it. Painful attitude to money , as in fact the only means of pleasure … and money, how much would they not been, always small. That’s really really, people are dying for the metal!             

For a person predisposed to depression, typically the desire to do everything myself ( “better because still no one will do”), all control ( “so safe”), to evade responsibility ( “can not do anything to turn”), confusion ( “What is to do? “), categorical judgments, polarity of assessments without halftones (” all or nothing “,” terrible or wonderful “), constant tension due to a sense of duty (” must “,” must “,” must “,” should “) …                 

An acute need for the support of other people , the desire to fulfill their expectations, and hence frequent misunderstandings and “busting” along the way, play a role . People begin to explain all their problems by insurmountable external reasons, endless blows of fate, from which they cannot be protected. Added to this is the inability to relax. Stubbornness, pride, hot temper make it difficult to seek help. An inclination towards mysticism and painful religiosity, which has nothing to do with true faith based on love for God and neighbor, and has always been condemned by the holy ascetics of the Church.                     

The experience of the Christian worldview is very important here. The underlying awareness of the original, insurmountable independently, without God’s help, imperfection, sinfulness of a person in itself can cause depression. In many of the works of the holy ascetics said about the danger of wrong “approach” to repentance in sins , and, as a consequence, incorrect understanding of repentance, not without reason called a sacrament.       

Meanwhile, the ways worked out by Christian experience to overcome despondency and pride, which have always been considered one of the most dangerous sins, can be useful not only to sincerely and deeply religious people.    

Without going into the details of the Christian science of the salvation of the soul, it is worth noting one fundamentally important principle. The resulting depression, according to the Christian understanding, is the result of pride, the complete isolation of a person on himself, on his exclusiveness. It is similar to the phenomenon when one mirror is placed in front of another – and an endless, meaningless corridor is formed, going into darkness. In this corridor, all our own shortcomings and blows from the outside are reflected endlessly and stretch to infinity. One of the outstanding Russian ascetics of the twentieth century, Hieroschemamonk Sampson ( Sivers ), who was the confessor of Academician Pavlov and President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academician Karpinsky, often talked about how important it is to “stop talking with oneself” in time, and constantly reminded gnaw yourself. Self – gnawing is the fruit of demonic ̆. I just realized my sin – and calm down! ”                          

However, here we are already intruding on the topic of treating depression with the help of non-drug, psychotherapeutic methods. But, by the way, at the everyday, mundane level, many talented clergymen who are highly advanced on the spiritual path can be recognized as “highly qualified psychotherapists” . In particular, not only the Christian denominations. Although, I emphasize, in Christianity, the topic of depression and its psychological causes is “developed”, perhaps, the most deeply.               

In today’s academic plan psychotherapists and priests look at the origins of depression and methods of treatment may be different. Usually, a psychotherapist seeks to give a person the opportunity to independently cope with depression, to teach him to control himself, not relying on God’s help.          

It is curious that one of the most authoritative doctors of the past century, the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud , who held an atheistic position , saw a similar cause of depression at the level of psychological reactions. He believed that it arises from the turning of a person’s anger towards himself . Hence such her symptoms as self-accusation and self-flagellation, which, in the opinion of Freud and his followers, represent anger towards other people repressed into the subconscious .              

The main sources of depression and other psychological problems, psychoanalysts call mental trauma received in childhood, even infancy. According to the theory of psychoanalysis, people who are prone to depression develop in the subconscious the confidence in the absence of love from their parents. In particular cases, this, of course, is possible, but it is hardly reasonable to make total generalizations on their basis, as the Freudians do .            

Problems of childhood, adolescence, youth …

Posted on June 18, 2021  in Uncategorized

The reason is no less weighty than the negative attitude of loved ones, sometimes their loss becomes . So, in clinical studies it was possible to establish that the loss of a mother before the age of 11 years contributes to the subsequent occurrence of frequent depressive episodes. In the circle of depressive patients, one can find people who have suffered serious mental trauma ( mainly, it is precisely the loss of loved ones) during the six months preceding the episode (attack) of depression.           

All these factors associated with family relationships can be classified as social.  

Acute and especially prolonged stress experienced by a person in his youth, during puberty, is very dangerous . Poor adaptability to difficulties, distorted forms of self-control, the test of loneliness of a person who is accustomed to increased parental care , in many respects ensure the “readiness” for the development of depression.         

On the other hand, constant parental reproaches, the tendency to blame the young person for all the failures, frequent insults, and harsh remarks increase the risk of developing depression . All of these “parenting lessons” create feelings of helplessness. Physical abuse and other abusive parenting measures can be obvious reasons . Scandals in the family, quarrels between parents, in which children are involuntarily involved, at least on an emotional level, also contribute to the appearance of depression in adolescents . The presence of a mental disorder in one of the parents, which in fact plays the role of a chronic stressful situation, also has a negative impact .             

The child accumulates negative memories, traumatic memories, which in the future will turn into mental vulnerability, a habit of distorted, inadequately interpreting any situation. Another problem at a later age is the inability of a young man to distance himself from the emotions of the people around him, the insecurity of the boundaries of his personality, their blurredness.     

An “unhappy childhood” contributes to the early onset of depression, which can manifest itself as early as the age of 18-20. To make matters worse , “childhood in a state of stress” complicates puberty, which, in turn, negatively affects the nervous and endocrine systems of the body.        

Psychological and social causes of depression

Posted on June 12, 2021  in Uncategorized

These factors – psychological and social – always go hand in hand, it is not always easy to separate them , and the system of “mutual guarantee” is understandable here even to a non-specialist. In people whose body is genetically, biologically predisposed to depression, inadequate mechanisms of psychological defense can usually be formed under the influence of upbringing. Very often, the cause of depression can be found in the shortcomings of upbringing ( and is it possible to find a person on Earth who has received an ideal upbringing ?!) and in a multitude of adverse social problems, “whose name is legion.”                 

Psychologists distinguish personality types among people with a certain character, a set of properties and ways of responding to external influences. Some researchers note that for the most part, three personality types are prone to developing depression :      

  • This is the so-called ” statotimic personality” , distinguished by hard work, accuracy and exaggerated conscientiousness.  
  • Another type is a personality of the “melancholic type” , characterized by a desire (in many respects excessive) for order, constancy, pedantry, increased self -exactingness and conscientiousness in performing the assigned work.      
  • The third type is a “ hypothetical personality” with its tendency to depressed mood, anxiety, feelings of self- doubt and feelings of inadequacy. This personality type usually has a positive quality – a special talent for empathy, which, however, can also be excessive, causing no less harm than good.            

Traditional methods (ethnoscience) of treatment of epilepsy.

Posted on June 6, 2021  in neuropathic pain

Since ancient times, people have widely used natural resources, sometimes trying to find salvation in them from any ailments – the history of herbal treatment was written parallel to the history of mankind. Information about medicinal plants was passed down orally from generation to generation, later observations began to be recorded on clay tiles, papyri, in books. The healing properties of various herbs were discovered gradually, knowledge was accumulated and systematized. After centuries of testing, some remedies and methods of treatment have earned universal recognition and have survived to this day in the arsenal of remedies.

In folk medicine, many anticonvulsant and antiepileptic plants have been used for centuries, the effects of which also included antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, sedative effects.

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that, from time to time, gives rise to brief disturbances in the normal electrical function of the brain. Normal brain function can make millions of tiny electrical charges flowing between nerve cells in the brain and to all parts of the body. When someone suffers from epilepsy, this normal pattern may be interrupted by intermittent bursts of electrical energy that are much more intense than usual. It can affect a person’s consciousness, bodily movements and sensations for a short time.

These physical changes are called epileptic seizures. Unusual bursts of energy can occur in only one area of ​​the brain (partial seizures), or can affect nerve cells throughout the brain (generalized seizures). Normal brain function cannot return until the electrical flares subside. The conditions in the brain that produce these episodes may be present from birth, or they may develop later in life due to trauma, infection, structural damage to the brain, exposure to toxic agents, or for reasons that are still not fully understood. Many illnesses or severe injuries can affect the brain quite strongly. If the seizures continue for unknown reasons, or because an underlying problem cannot be corrected, the condition is known as epilepsy. Epilepsy affects people of all ages, all nations, all races.

Traditional methods: Daphne mezereum.

Daphne mezereum

20-30 g of Daphne mezereum root is brewed in 50-100 g of water, insisted for 20 minutes and 5 g are taken for epilepsy and as a very effective sleeping pill, from which an extremely sound sleep occurs.

Scientific research

Many researchers and doctors believe that the use of herbs in the treatment of epilepsy helps to improve mood, eliminate neurotic manifestations in the form of increased fatigue, irritability, anxiety, and fears. Providing a general strengthening effect, herbal medicine helps to expand the patient’s adaptation capabilities, significantly reducing the destructive effect of stress. In addition, individually selected herbal preparations help to correct the patient’s condition, not only eliminating the side effects of drugs, but also relieving the patient from other, so-called concomitant diseases, which, in turn, has a beneficial effect on the course of epilepsy.

Dr. Bekhterev proposed the use of certain cardiovascular medicinal substances to eliminate vascular disorders in a convulsive attack. In the course of treatment, in a mixture with bromides, the following were used: Adonis vernalis, digitalis, convalaria majalis, etc. Over time, preference was given to Adonis vernalis as the most effective remedy. Ankylosing spondylitis was created, which is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy. It contains: infusion of spring adonis herb 6.0: 180.0, codeine phosphate 0.2 g, sodium bromide 6.0 g. Dr. Bekhterev noted that epileptic seizures are accompanied by tachycardia, even if common seizures are not observed. Tachycardia is also observed in the form of an aura, which is exactly what is remembered by patients who an attack. Thus, tachycardia is one of the persistent symptoms of epilepsy, which has been suggested to play a role in its pathogenesis. In addition, Dr. Bekhterev expressed the idea of ​​the advisability of prescribing cardiac drugs for the treatment of epilepsy in order to influence the enhancement of the excretion of “unusable products of liver metamorphosis” and on the regulation of cerebral vessels.

Currently, there are many schemes for the treatment of epilepsy, the selection of which is carried out by specialists individually. The following plants are most commonly used in combinations:

  • Calamus ordinary (calamus marsh), Acorus calamus L. (Aroid family)
  • Mountain arnica, Arnika montana L. (Compositae family)
  • Spotted hemlock, Conium maculatum L. (Umbelliferae family)
  • Valerian officinalis, Maun officinalis, Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian family)
  • Oregano, Origanum vulgare L. (Family Labiata)
  • Angelica officinalis, Arclangelica officinalis Hoffm. (Syn. Angelica Archangelica L.), (Families about umbrella)
  • St. John’s wort (common), Hypericum perforatum (Family St. John’s wort)
  • Lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L. (Family Labiata)
  • Evasive peony, P. anomala L.
  • Motherwort, L. cardiaca L.
  • Chamomile, Matricaria Chamomilla L. (Compositae family)
  • 12.Chernobylnik, Artemisia vulgaris L. (Compositae family)
  • Sage officinalis, Salvia officinalis L. (Labiate family)

Vitamins and minerals for epilepsy

Vitamin and mineral complexes are especially necessary for young children or people on a ketogenic diet. With epilepsy, the patient has limited nutrition, which negatively affects physical and mental development. What vitamins and minerals restore the body’s work:

  • Vitamins of group B. For a healthy metabolism and energy, the body needs folic acid, B6 and B12 – they eliminate drug resistance.
  • Vitamin D. In epileptics, the liver actively produces enzymes that flush vitamin D out of the body. Calcium deficiency threatens osteoporosis.
  • Antioxidants Taking medications reduces the amount of selenium, vitamins C and E, therefore, the use of antioxidants is included in the medication course.
  • Magnesium. It is necessary to maintain the balance of neurotransmitters, as well as to inhibit calcium channels.
  • Melatonin. It inhibits excitatory receptors and glutamate, helps to restore sleep and the biological rhythm of life, gives strength and energy.
  • Omega – 3. Fatty acids are indispensable for epilepsy due to their anticonvulsant effect. The high amount of fat in the blood stimulates the production of ketone, which replaces the excitatory glucose, but is not harmful.

All about depression

Posted on June 6, 2021  in Uncategorized

I. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT DEPRESSION 

Depression is a disease of our time 

Studies around the world show that depression, like cardiovascular disease, is becoming the most common ailment of our time. It is a common disorder that affects millions of people. According to various researchers, up to 20% of the population of developed countries suffers from it .     

Depression is a serious illness that dramatically reduces the ability to work and brings suffering to both the patient himself and his loved ones. By Unfortunately, very few people are aware of the typical symptoms and effects of depression, so many patients care is provided when the state takes a long and severe, and sometimes – and not at all turns. In almost all developed countries, health services are concerned about the situation and are making efforts to promote information about depression and how to treat it.                 

Depression is a disease of the whole organism. Typical signs of depression 

The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. Let’s list the most typical signs of this disorder:   

Emotional manifestations

  • Longing, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair
  • Anxiety, feeling of inner tension, anticipation of trouble
  • Irritability
  • Feelings of guilt, frequent self-accusations
  • Self- dissatisfaction, decreased self-confidence , decreased self-esteem 
  • Decreased or lost ability to experience pleasure in previously enjoyable activities   
  • Decreased interest in the world around you 
  • Loss of the ability to experience any feelings (in cases of deep depression) 
  • Depression is often combined with anxiety about the health and fate of loved ones, as well as fear of appearing insolvent in public      

Physiological manifestations

  • Sleep disturbances (insomnia, drowsiness) 
  • Appetite changes (loss or overeating)
  • Bowel dysfunction (constipation)
  • Decreased sexual needs
  • Decreased energy, increased fatigue during normal physical and intellectual exertion, weakness 
  • Pain and various discomfort in the body (for example, in the heart, in the stomach, in the muscles)     

Behavioral manifestations

  • Passivity, difficulty in engaging in purposeful activity 
  • Avoidance of contact (tendency to be alone, loss of interest in other people)  
  • Refusal of entertainment 
  • Alcohol and substance abuse that provide temporary relief  

Thought manifestations

  • Difficulty concentrating, concentrating
  • Difficulty making decisions
  • The predominance of gloomy, negative thoughts about yourself, about your life, about the world in general    
  • Gloomy, pessimistic vision of the future with a lack of perspective, thoughts about the meaninglessness of life  
  • Thoughts of suicide (in severe cases of depression)   
  • Having thoughts about your own uselessness, insignificance, helplessness 
  • Slow thinking

For the diagnosis of depression, it is necessary that some of the listed symptoms persist for at least two weeks. 

Depression needs to be treated

Depression is often perceived by both the patient and others as a manifestation of bad character, laziness and selfishness, promiscuity or natural pessimism. It should be remembered that depression is not just a bad mood (see manifestations above), but a disease that requires the intervention of specialists and responds well to treatment. The earlier the correct diagnosis is made and the correct treatment is started, the greater the chances for a quick recovery , that the depression does not recur again and does not take on a severe form, accompanied by the desire to commit suicide.              

What usually prevents people from seeking help for depression?  

Often people are afraid to see a mental health professional because of the perceived negative consequences:  

  • Possible social restrictions ( registration, ban on driving and traveling abroad)    
  • Condemnation if someone finds out that the patient is being treated by a psychiatrist  
  • Fears the negative impact of drug treatment, based on which are widely used, but not the accurate understanding of the dangers of psychotropic drugs    

People often do not have the necessary information and misunderstand the nature of their condition. It seems to them that if their condition is associated with understandable life difficulties, then this is not depression, but a normal human reaction that will pass on its own. It often happens that the physiological manifestations of depression contribute to the formation of beliefs about the presence of serious somatic diseases. This is the reason for contacting a general practitioner.             

80% of patients with depression initially seek help from a general practitioner, and about 5% of them are correctly diagnosed . Fewer patients receive adequate therapy. K Unfortunately, in the normal admission to the clinic is not always possible to distinguish between physiological manifestations of depression and the presence of a true physical illness that leads to the formulation of misdiagnosis. Patients are prescribed symptomatic therapy (medicines “for the heart”, “for the stomach”, ” for headaches”), but there is no improvement . Thoughts arise about a serious, unrecognized somatic illness, which, by the mechanism of a vicious circle, leads to an aggravation of depression. Patients spend a lot of time on clinical and laboratory examinations, and, as a rule, come to a psychiatrist with severe, chronic manifestations of depression.                    

II. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT DEPRESSION 

The main types of depression

Depression often occurs against a background of stress or long-term severe traumatic situations. Sometimes they occur for no apparent reason. Depression can accompany somatic diseases (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, etc.). In such cases, it significantly complicates the course and prognosis of the underlying somatic disease. However, with timely detection and treatment of depression, there is a rapid improvement in mental and physical well-being.        

Depression can occur in the form of single, different in severity episodes of the disease or proceed for a long time in the form of repeated exacerbations.   

In some patients, depression is chronic – it lasts for many years without reaching significant severity.     

Sometimes depression is limited mainly to bodily symptoms without distinct emotional manifestations. At the same time, clinical and laboratory examinations may not reveal any organic changes. In such cases, it is necessary to consult a psychiatrist.    

Modern understanding of the causes of depression 

Bio- psycho-social model of depression.

Modern science considers depression as a disease, the origin of which is contributed by different causes or factors – biological, psychological and social.     

The biology of depression

The biological factors of depression include, first of all, specific disorders of neurochemical processes (exchange of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, etc.). These disorders, in turn, can be hereditary.    

The psychology of depression

Scientific studies have identified the following psychological factors for depression:

  • A special style of thinking, the so-called. negative thinking, which is characterized by fixation on the negative sides of life and one’s own personality, a tendency to see in a negative light the surrounding life and one’s future    
  • A specific style of communication in a family with an increased level of criticism, increased conflict  
  • An increased number of stressful life events in personal life (separation, divorce, alcohol abuse of loved ones, death of loved ones) 
  • Social isolation with few warm, trusting contacts that could serve as a source of emotional support  

The social context of depression

The growth of depressions in modern civilization is associated with a high pace of life, an increased level of its stressfulness : high competitiveness of modern society, social instability – a high level of migration, difficult economic conditions, uncertainty about the future. In modern society, a number of values ​​are cultivated that condemn a person to constant dissatisfaction with himself – the cult of physical and personal perfection, the cult of strength, superiority over other people and personal well-being. This makes people feel bad about their problems and failures, deprives them of emotional support and condemns them to loneliness.                

III. HELP FOR DEPRESSION

The modern approach to the treatment of depression involves a combination of various methods – biological therapy (medication and non- medication) and psychotherapy.       

Drug treatment

Medication is prescribed for patients with mild, moderate, and severe depression. A prerequisite for the effectiveness of treatment is cooperation with a doctor: strict adherence to the prescribed therapy regimen, regular visits to the doctor, a detailed, frank report about your condition and life difficulties.      

Antidepressants

Correct therapy can in most cases completely get rid of the symptoms of depression. Depression requires specialist treatment . The main class of drugs for the treatment of depression are antidepressants. At present there are different products of this group from their tricyclic aptidepressanty (amitriptyline, imipramine ), and have been used since the late 50 ‘s. In recent years, the number of antidepressants has increased significantly.           

The main advantages of new generation antidepressants are improved tolerance, reduced side effects, reduced toxicity, and high overdose safety. By the newer antidepressants are fluoxetine ( Prozac , profluzak ), sertraline ( Zoloft ), citalopram ( tsipramil ), paroxetine ( Paxil ), fluvoxamine ( Luvox ), tianeptine ( tianeptine ), mianserin ( lerivon ), moclobemide ( auroriks ), milnacipran ( Ixel ) , mirtazapine ( Remeron ), etc. Antidepressants are a safe class of psychotropic drugs when used correctly according to a doctor’s recommendation. The dose of the drug is determined individually for each patient. You need to know that the therapeutic effect of antidepressants can manifest itself slowly and gradually, so it is important to be positive and wait for it to appear.        

Antidepressants do not cause addiction and the development of a withdrawal syndrome, in contrast to drugs of the class of benzodiazenine tranquilizers (phenazepam, Relanium , Elenium, tazepam, etc.) and corvalol, valocordin, widely used in our country. In addition, benzodiazepine tranquilizers and phenobarbital, which are part of Corvalol and Valocordin, with prolonged use, reduce sensitivity to other psychopharmacological agents.             

The main stages of therapy

  • Determining the treatment strategy: choosing an antidepressant with view of the main symptoms of depression in each patient, the selection of adequate dose and individual treatment regimen     
  • Carrying out the main course of therapy aimed at reducing the symptoms of depression until they disappear, restoring the patient’s previous level of activity     
  • Conducting a maintenance course of therapy for 4-6 months or more after the general normalization of the condition. This stage is aimed at preventing the exacerbation of the disease.     

What usually interferes with drug treatment:

  • The misconception about the nature of depression and on the role of drug treatment   
  • A common misconception about the unconditional harm of all psychotropic drugs: the emergence of dependence on them, a negative effect on the state of internal organs. Many patients believe that it is better to suffer from depression than to take antidepressants.    
  • Many patients discontinue use if there is no immediate effect or take medication irregularly 

It is important to remember that numerous studies have been carried out confirming the high efficacy and safety of modern antidepressants. The damage caused by depression to a person’s emotional and material well-being is not comparable in severity with the minor and easily eliminated side effects that sometimes occur with the use of antidepressants. It should be remembered that the therapeutic effect of antidepressants often occurs only 2-4 weeks after the start of administration.       

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is not an alternative, but an important adjunct to medication for depression. In contrast to drug treatment, psychotherapy assumes a more active role of the patient in the treatment process. Psychotherapy helps patients to develop skills of emotional self-regulation and in the future to cope more effectively with crisis situations without sinking into depression.            

In the treatment of depression, three approaches have proven to be the most effective and scientifically based: psychodynamic psychotherapy, behavioral psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy.   

According to psychodynamic therapy, the psychological basis of depression is internal unconscious conflicts. For example, a desire to be independent and at the same time a desire to receive a large amount of support, help and care from other people. Another typical conflict is the presence of intense anger, resentment towards others, combined with the need to be always kind, good and to maintain the location of loved ones. The sources of these conflicts lie in the patient’s life history, which becomes the subject of analysis in psychodynamic therapy. In each individual case, it may be its unique content of conflicting emotions, and therefore require individual psychotherapeutic work. The goal of therapy is to recognize the conflict and help in its constructive resolution: to learn to find a balance of independence and intimacy, to develop the ability to express feelings constructively and maintain relationships with people. Behavioral psychotherapy is aimed at resolving the patient’s current problems and relieving behavioral symptoms: passivity, refusal of pleasures, monotonous lifestyle, isolation from others, inability to plan and engage in purposeful activity.                        

Cognitive psychotherapy is a synthesis of both of the above approaches and combines their advantages. It combines work with actual life difficulties and behavioral symptoms of depression and work with their internal psychological sources (deep ideas and beliefs). As the main psychological mechanism of depression in cognitive psychotherapy is considered the so-called. negative thinking, which is expressed in the tendency of depressed patients to view everything that happens to them in a negative light. Changing this way of thinking requires careful individual work that aims to develop a more realistic and optimistic view of ourselves, the world and the future.                    

Additional forms of psychotherapy for depression are family counseling and group psychotherapy (but not any, but specifically aimed at helping depressed patients). Their involvement can be of significant assistance in treatment and rehabilitation.         

What usually hinders seeking psychotherapeutic help? 

  • Low awareness of people about what psychotherapy is 
  • Fear of a stranger’s initiation into personal, intimate experiences 
  • Skeptical about the fact that “talking” can have a tangible healing effect 
  • The notion that you need to cope with psychological difficulties yourself, and turning to another person is a sign of weakness    

In modern society, psychotherapy is a recognized, effective method of helping with various mental disorders. Thus, a course of cognitive psychotherapy significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of depression. Modern methods of psychotherapy are focused on short-term (10-30 sessions, depending on the severity of the condition), effective help. All information that the psychotherapist receives during the session is strictly confidential and remains secret. A professional psychotherapist is specially trained to work with difficult experiences and difficult life situations of other people, he knows how to respect them and help in coping with them. In each person in life there are situations (eg, such as an illness), with whom he did not can cope on their own. Learning to ask for and accept help is a sign of maturity and rationality, not weakness.                            

Helping people close to you to overcome depression 

The support of loved ones, even when the patient does not express interest in her, is very important in overcoming depression.  

In this regard, the following advice can be given to relatives of patients:  

  • Remember that depression – a disease in which the need sympathy, but not in koem case can not sink into the disease with the patient, sharing his pessimism and despair. You need to be able to maintain a certain emotional distance, all the time reminding yourself and the patient that depression is a transient emotional state         
  • Studies have shown that depression is especially unfavorable in those families where a lot of criticism is made about the patient. Try to make it clear to the patient that his condition is not his fault, but the misfortune that he needs help and treatment        
  • Try not to focus on the illness of a loved one and bring positive emotions into your life and into the life of your family. If possible, try to involve the patient in some kind of useful activity, and not remove him from business .           

Depression and age

Posted on May 31, 2021  in Uncategorized

Complaints of elderly people suffering from depressive spectrum disorder often revolve around problems with diseases of internal organs, joints, and spine. It is worth paying special attention to the fact that it is very, very difficult to identify depression in old age . In general, it does not belong to the typical “companions” of old age and is not an inevitable consequence of age-related changes.            

In general , if depression manifests itself, then with age , somatic, that is, bodily symptoms , hypochondriacal experiences (excessive attention to one’s health, constant fear of getting sick), fears , anxiety , irritable, maliciously melancholy mood, cognitive impairments come to the fore … In this period of life vividly expressed – wife are manifestations of depression as a negative image of will – present, the difficulty of perception of positive developments. The cause of all failures, including growing physical difficulties, people begin to consider their own failure. In the case of depressive illness in the foreground you can go delusions of guilt and sin.                    

Fears that with age it becomes more difficult to treat depression , which is largely justified and is due to the influence of the vascular factor, on the one hand, and degenerative changes in the cerebral cortex , on the other. Studies show that the effectiveness of treatment for depression, as well as its manifestations, in old and senile , and at a young age is approximately the same. Another thing is that among the mechanisms of the onset of depression, over time, deep, biological factors begin to play an increasing role . This organic changes in the brain and the aging of the cardiovascular system, other related chronic – skie internal diseases, metabolic disorders. Drug treatments can go on the forefront, but there is often need a combination of two antidepressants of different mecha – ma action, active involvement of non-drug therapies .                           

The influence on depression of psychosocial factors , which also contribute to its occurrence and development, cannot be underestimated .    

Among the most common reasons that provoke the onset of depression , – fear of loss of autonomy, lack of social support, loneliness, social isolation, loss of influence and respect, changing living conditions and the usual social ties.    

Especially dangerous in old age are severe mental trauma – the death of a spouse, a change of place of residence (moving to another district, city, country, from a rural area to a city, etc.), and finally, financial collapse, so familiar to most Russian pensioners. That is why in the psychotherapy of the elderly and senile age the support and encouragement of a person is so important – and especially in the family circle, if , fortunately, there is one.   

Depression symptoms

Posted on May 25, 2021  in Uncategorized

It would seem that everyone, in fact, knows the main symptoms of depression … However, this is a false impression. It is worth delving a little deeper and getting acquainted with the clinical descriptions of this disorder in more detail – and you will be surprised how complex and varied its manifestations are! And an accurate diagnosis can be made only by knowing all the nuances, sometimes outwardly inconspicuous individual characteristics of these manifestations. And an effective treatment strategy , in turn, is based precisely on a comprehensive knowledge of all the signs of depression .                

When you look closely at someone with depression, you will probably notice that their mood is altered .   

Doctors call depressed mood hypothymia and note that the “bad mood” in depression can have different shades specific to a given mental disorder. 

Indeed, depressed mood is recognized as a classic sign of depression. In all cases of disorder, even the most mild, this symptom occurs most often. 

The spectrum of mood changes can include anxiety, melancholy, apathy and irritability. Emotions close to the feeling of anguish, sadness, and recognized the sadness, to apathy – laziness and indifference, to the dismay – excitement , anxiety and fear.            

“Recognition” of the leading modality of mood: irritability, anxiety, melancholy and apathy is especially necessary for accurate diagnosis of depression and the construction of an optimal treatment regimen.     

Each of the leading modalities of depression has its own spectrum of concomitant somatic and neurological symptoms.  

Constant doubts when making a decision, low self-esteem, and feelings of guilt are quite typical signs of depression. 

It can also manifest itself in an angry, melancholy mood – dysphoria. At the same time, one should not forget that such phenomena as constant dissatisfaction, irascibility, resentment and vulnerability can be permanent attributes of a person’s personality, which were present even before the onset of depression.       

Irritability, anxiety, melancholy and apathy, as a rule, are in close connection with each other, but at some point one of these feelings becomes the leading one. The manifestation of a number of other symptoms depends on this , in particular: the nature of sensations in the internal organs and the degree of change in thinking and perception processes.            

Unbearable melancholy is a hard feeling. In this state, the world for the sufferer looks lifeless and dead. And such a world can no longer bring any joy, no pleasure. This is how anhedonia often develops This term “covers” the loss of the ability to experience, experience pleasure. The joys of life lose their meaning, what used to please is now indifferent …       

In severe cases, there is “mental anesthesia” – a conscious loss of the ability to any feelings in general. Despite the excruciating mental pain, a person sometimes completely loses the “gift of tears”, but as he recovers, the ability to cry out his sorrows returns to him.      

During depression, initiative clearly weakens, the ability to cope with difficulties decreases , many desires common to people disappear, and the will noticeably weakens. A person begins to constantly complain of fatigue , weakness, which sometimes seem so insurmountable that he no longer has the strength to just get up and go to the doctor. In severe cases, there may be complete passivity, immobility. Obvious changes in behavior and appearance occur.       

With depression, a person, on the one hand, seeks isolation, avoids contact with other people, and on the other hand, on the other hand, seeks sympathy and support from others.       

He strives for loneliness and at the same time is afraid of it, withdraws from communication, hiding his feelings, and at the same time he is glad, even if a short, casual meeting with a person who is ready to at least superficially delve into his problems.          

Attempts to distract the depressed person, to come up with entertainment for him, are usually unsuccessful and often cause the opposite effect. Deep pessimism soon paints the world dark again . Changing the place of stay, contacting a new doctor sometimes only for a short time bring relief, which quickly gives way to disappointment, irritability and the return of other symptoms, even more pronounced.      

Movement during depression is most often slowed down, limited. The sufferer can sit motionless in one place or lie for a very long time . Sometimes there is even a so-called “depressive stupor” – a state of complete immobility.   

Less often, opposite phenomena can occur . So, with melancholy in the elderly and young people, specific excitement can be observed, in which a person does not find a place for himself, rushes about, breaks his hands, groans. The character of a person is noticeable in the manifestations of depression.     

In the period of depression also appears carelessness in dress and in appearance. For a person, a posture with lowered shoulders, a sad expression on the face, lowered corners of the mouth, a look “down”, a fold at the eyebrow, among psychiatrists known as the “Veragut fold”, named after the doctor who described it, become characteristic .      

Sleep disturbances in depression

Posted on May 19, 2021  in Uncategorized

Statistics shows that 80% of people suffering from depression, on – Rushen sleep . As a rule, a person wakes up early, as if from a sudden jolt. But it may be difficult and falling asleep, sleep usually surfaces – ny, restless anxious, often saturated nightmares. A person sometimes does not feel that he was asleep.        

Phase of dreams in such people comes much earlier than normal, which, in particular, could be evidence of biological predraspolo – field intensity to depression . Dreaming sleep usually occurs in the first half of the night. Common symptoms are lack of sense of relaxation after sleep, do not – the ability to sleep in the daytime, or, on the contrary, expressed daytime sleepiness.         

As you know, the deepest, late stage of sleep is very important for the normal functioning of the body, and in severe depression this stage may be completely absent. Reduction or absence of tre – tey and fourth phases of sleep – sleep Rem-phase – is considered the most accurate diagnostic criteria for depression. In addition, sleep cycles during depression lag behind the circadian rhythm.      

Insomnia is a common symptom and a sure companion of depression.  

The occurrence of sleep disorders can also be caused by diseases of internal organs, endocrine diseases, alcohol abuse , smoking, as well as neurological diseases (migraines, back pain). Insomnia interferes with the restoration of vital energy, as a result of which a person is overworked, mental activity decreases, and the immune system decreases. A person becomes irritable and can blame himself for not being able to keep up with the general rhythm of life. Therefore, if insomnia continues for seven days, you need to seek help.   

Depressive state

Posted on May 13, 2021  in Uncategorized

People with depression have different assessments of their condition. Not seeing clear reasons for its development, some, including the patient’s relatives, may not recognize depression as a disease, while blaming themselves for lack of will, passivity, and indecision. In these cases, there are frequent attempts to explain the symptoms by psychologically understandable reasons, thoughts are expressed about the presence of bodily diseases. But more often the problem is perceived as a mental one, and with an admixture of ideas of self-accusation: “I got sick because of stupidity, because of a trifle,” “I didn’t need to be treated in the hospital,” “I took the wrong medicine,” “I didn’t get myself together on time” and etc. Characterized by endless searches for the cause of the disease, “archaeological excavations” concerning the past and everything that could be the source of the development of depression. The question is constantly tormented – why did this happen to me?                       

The most dangerous are thoughts of suicide or suicidal thoughts. If they are present, the suffering person has a burning desire to punish himself, no longer burden others with taking care of himself, not be a burden for those around him. Understanding that the state of depression is temporary, that it is possible to recover, like many other “brothers in misfortune”, and even one’s own previous experience in overcoming suffering sometimes does not bring relief … It is known that the state of alcoholic intoxication in these cases often leads to tragic consequences – suicide.                 

A specially constructed clinical conversation of a doctor includes questions aimed at identifying a feeling of hopelessness, a willingness to commit suicide, a detailed plan for committing it (in particular, drawing up a will, putting in order their financial affairs, searching for tools for committing suicide). Do not be afraid to openly ask a person if he has suicidal thoughts . Sometimes this can prevent trouble.           

A common medical mistake by a psychiatrist , usually committed under pressure from a patient with depression and his relatives, is the premature discharge of a patient from a psychiatric clinic , especially if, upon admission to the hospital, he had thoughts of suicide.