What is allotriophagy

In the modern world, from time to time you can encounter people who are distinguished by the presence of oddities that are incomprehensible to others.

One of these strange moments is the fact that some individuals have an excessive craving for tasting raw foods without heat treatment.

Sometimes there may be a craving to taste inedible objects. This condition goes beyond the norm, being a sign of susceptibility to allotriophagy .

List of causes leading to the disorder

Allotriophagy is commonly referred to as an eating disorder in which a person urgently wants to eat something inedible. Among the common causes that lead to the onset of the disorder, there are such factors:

– social character;
– psychologically conditioned; – on a physiological basis.

In most cases, pathology develops against the background of improper upbringing in childhood, and also as a result of receiving psycho-emotional trauma, for example, patients with schizophrenia . An unbalanced diet can also be a trigger for the development of an eating disorder. Hormonal imbalances often cause problems with taste and smell receptors, which leads to strange eating habits.

Typical symptoms and diagnosis of the disorder

Usually, allotriophagy is characterized by the fact that a person prone to such an ailment not only dreams of eating objects, substances that do not have nutritional value, but also embodies fantasies into reality. Sometimes sick people are able to lick, chew, gnaw the objects of their desires for a long time, trying to get the desired effect to the maximum.

The final diagnosis is possible after a detailed conversation between the psychotherapist and the patient or his relatives.

Features of treatment and preventive measures

tangible beneficial effect in the treatment of allotriophagy can be achieved if psychotherapeutic methods are used and the drug treatment is correctly selected. In each case, an individual approach to solving the problem will be required.

It is possible to warn yourself and loved ones from the disease if the diet is balanced, the psychological situation is normalized, and violence within the family is excluded. Inculcating a culture of nutrition from an early age will also prove to be a sure way to avoid allotriophagy in the future.

Extreme thinking and the danger of such a critical perception of reality

Posted on August 31, 2022  in Uncategorized

The concept of “extreme thinking” is not given a clear definition. This phenomenon is only being studied, and information about it can only be found in foreign works and studies. Such thinking is typical for a person who looks at the world through the prism of extremes: either everything or nothing, or you are with me, or you are against me.

People with extreme thinking do not accept constructive criticism of their statements. They are convinced that a person should fully accept their position. Otherwise, he is regarded as an enemy that is not able to support, appreciate and respect. Such people are impulsive, self-confident and often self-centered.

What can extreme thinking lead to?

This form of perception leads to regressive behavior, which is reflected in all areas of life. Extreme thinking makes it difficult to assess the situation sensibly and think rationally, maintaining a sense of balance and proportion. This leads to problems in interpersonal relationships, hindering the establishment of healthy and productive social interaction.

It is difficult for such a person to compromise, and even more so to give in. He believes that such a reaction will make him vulnerable, he will lose his authority and position in society. Such a person will not give in, even when it comes to maintaining relationships and mutual understanding. It is more important for him to feed his ego and show his importance than to respect the position and opinion of the interlocutor or even a loved one.

A destructive position leads to the fact that sooner or later relationships with significant people come to naught. At the same time, most people with extreme thinking do not even realize why this is happening. Their mental pattern makes it impossible for them to assess the situation sensibly.

These are the strong forms of manifestation of destructive perception. But there are also less pronounced ones that are extremely difficult to recognize. In most cases, a person is completely unaware that he is independently destroying relationships that are dear to him.

How extreme thinking manifests itself

Let’s look at the most striking examples of cognitive distortions, and how a person who is used to rushing from one extreme to another reacts to them.

– Overgeneralization . It characterizes the type of response to situations, as a result of which a person perceives everything too critically, leaving no room for diversity and breadth of thoughts. For example, your workmate did a bad job, and now you have a clear belief in your head that he is not able to solve the assigned tasks well and constantly gets into trouble. Or, at a meeting, your interlocutor made a remark to you, and now you evaluate yourself as a rude, incapable of doing the right thing, a person.

– Quickly conclusions. This reaction arises due to an insufficient level of knowledge about the situation. For example, you want to ask a friend for help, but for some reason you are sure that your request will make him angry or he will demand something in return for his services. The peculiarity of such conclusions is that you have not previously encountered a similar situation, but you are completely sure that it will happen exactly as you think.

– Catastrophization . This point is very insidious and does not allow many people to soberly assess the situation. With this reaction, it is common to expect only the worst possible scenario of the development of events. It may seem to many that such life scenarios are overly exaggerated, but for a person with extreme thinking, this is a standard way of thinking. Often such people became victims of psychological trauma at an early age, when their psyche could not fight back to the best of its ability.

How not to fall into the trap of your subconscious

The most important concept in the fight against extreme thinking is awareness. Only in this way will a person be able to recognize, stop and overcome the signs of an unhealthy perception of reality. Watch your reaction, note for yourself what situations cause you strong negative feelings and emotions. Learn to play the scenario of your life sensibly, starting from the real order of things. In any situation, adhere to the principle of non -judgmental judgment – by working on yourself, your life can sparkle with completely new colors.

What is the Semmelweis effect and how does it affect the adequate perception of reality

Posted on August 25, 2022  in Uncategorized

The Semmelweiss effect describes a phenomenon in which people refuse to let new information into their lives that can distort their understanding of the usual order of things.

The history of the term

In the forties of the 19th century, the death rate of women from puerperal fever increased significantly on the territory of the hospital of St. Roch . The indicators grew only in one of the two departments, which for many doctors and health workers seemed very strange and inexplicable. This question was decided to study by Ignaz Semmelweis , who worked as an obstetrician at the time. He was interested not only in the cause of such a phenomenon: he sincerely felt sorry for the poor women who suffered so much and died a painful death.

A chain of logical conclusions led him to the doctors who took birth in the first department. In their free time, they actively honed their skills by working with corpses in the morgue, which was located directly next to the building, where women fell ill after childbirth. Observing their activities, the doctor noticed that many of the obstetricians do not have time to thoroughly disinfect their hands after autopsies, but only wipe them with a clean handkerchief. Semmelweis ordered all those who come into contact with pregnant women to wipe their hands with bleach solution. His theory was confirmed: after thorough disinfection, mortality rates dropped significantly.

Wishing to help women in childbirth all over the world, the professor hastened to share his already confirmed observations with his colleagues. Their reaction surprised him: not only did they begin to reject him, they began to mock him and poison him in every possible way. It got to the point that Ignaz was forbidden to perform surgical interventions and work with living patients. There is an explanation for this paradox, and it sounds like this: those who so actively rejected the professor’s position were simply afraid to admit the fact that a doctor can harm a person, and even infect him with a deadly disease.

The professor died of mental illness, unable to prove to the whole world the correctness of his research. Only many years later, when this issue began to be actively highlighted in scientific papers, Semmelweis was finally remembered. In honor of him, they decided to name the phenomenon, which explains the reaction of the population to information that breaks their idea of \u200b\u200ba real-life order of things.

Distinctive features of the effect

The Semmelweiss effect characterizes the complete rejection of the new, even if the data is scientifically confirmed. This is because people are accustomed to living according to well-formed rules and traditions that resonate in their souls. Imagine: you have believed all your life that the Earth is perfectly round. This was written in school textbooks, it was said by all teachers, teachers and parents. And at one moment you will learn a scientifically confirmed fact that our planet only remotely resembles a circle, and its entire surface is rough and deformed under the influence of various natural factors. How long will it take you to cross out and get out of your head what you have been told for so many years?

For scientists , the Semmelweis effect is an absolutely normal phenomenon, since researchers question all new information. They tend to adapt old theories to new data, rather than accept the indisputable fact of the existence of a completely different reality. A distinctive feature of the phenomenon is that the population tends to perceive new information with sharp aggressiveness and literally poison the author for his ability to take a fresh look at the world.

What kind of people are prone to the Semmelweis effect ?

The trap of cognitive distortion tends to fall into those who:

– Has an inflated self-esteem and sincerely believes in the correctness of his beliefs;

– Possesses narrow thinking, does not let anything new into his life;

– Adheres to conservative views;

– Completely denies the benefits of progress and innovation, preferring the established and proven.

As a result, such people biasedly assess the situation and burrow tightly into their own cocoon. To minimize the impact of the Semmelweiss effect , you should expand your own perception of reality. Do not look at everything through the prism of your own doubts, let new emotions and information enter your life that will feed your knowledge and make you a more conscious person.

Nomophobia – what is it?

Posted on August 19, 2022  in Uncategorized

Today, in the modern world, most people are active users of all kinds of gadgets that allow you to stay in touch with family and friends, as well as giving you the opportunity to know what is happening around. Being practically inseparable from the means of communication, such people experience tangible discomfort even at the mere thought of a situation where it will not be possible to use a smartphone or tablet. Such fear leads to severe stress and is a harbinger of a psychological pathology that is becoming common among people of all ages.

Features of nomophobia and its key symptoms

A psychological disorder in which an excessive fear of being without your mobile phone is manifested is commonly called nomophobia . Such a new concept in psychology is associated with extremely rapid technological progress, when gadgets for communication and entertainment became available to mankind. Having quickly got used to their presence, people now cannot imagine their lives without smartphones and tablets. Therefore, even the very thought of the impossibility of using a familiar gadget for a long time gives rise to a whole range of unpleasant sensations at the psychological and even physical level.

Despite the fact that today there is no official statistics on the number of those who suffer from nomophobia , experts in the field of psychology confirm that the number of people with this disease is growing every day. At the same time, representatives of both sexes are almost equally susceptible to the disorder, regardless of their social status.

Since nomophobia is not just an unrelenting dependence on a mobile phone, but a real type of anxiety disorder, it is characterized by a number of symptoms on several levels. Among the emotional signs of the presence of an ailment, there are such moments as:

– confusion of thoughts when the phone is not in close proximity;

– anxiety in case of need to put the gadget aside for a certain time;

panic when it is impossible to use the phone when it suddenly fails;

– stressful feelings in a situation of not being able to check the smartphone if desired.

Physical symptoms include disorientation, dizziness, palpitations, shortness of breath, and tightness in the chest. Such signs make themselves felt at the slightest thought of separation from the adored gadget.

Absolute attachment to the subject of communication leads to the fact that representatives of the male and female part of the population tend not to part with the phone even in the toilet and in the process of taking a bath. The desire to monitor the battery level every free minute and replenish the account balance in time leads to a pathological dependence on the gadget, which quickly becomes a substitute for full-fledged communication with people in real life.

The main causes of the emergence of nomophobia

Due to the fact that the phenomenon of extreme dependence on technology to communicate with the outside world arose relatively recently, it has not yet been fully studied. However, specialists working on the study of this phenomenon note a trend in which adolescents and young people are most susceptible to psychological disorder due to the vulnerability of the psyche.

Among the factors influencing the appearance of the disease, there is a fear of isolation from loved ones and society as a whole. Today, the telephone is the main means of maintaining contact with important people who are at some distance. Therefore, the prospect of losing your phone can pretty much ruin your nerves, sowing endless fear. A smartphone can act as a cure for loneliness, creating the illusion of a large social circle. The inability to get in touch with virtual friends gives rise to a fear of being left exclusively alone with oneself.

Having the painful experience of losing your phone along with the valuable numbers of the right people contributes to the fear of history repeating itself. Such thoughts make a person keep the gadget always next to him, making it the most important item in life.

The inability to solve your own personal problems can lead to the need to spend free time with a smartphone, distracting from all sorts of unpleasant thoughts. Instead of establishing real contacts with representatives of the same or the opposite sex, a person plunges into the virtual world, gradually losing touch with the outside world.

Despite the danger posed by modern gadgets, they can bring tangible benefits with the right approach to using the miracle of technology. It is enough to follow simple rules for handling communication means, which will not allow you to plunge headlong into virtuality, but will give satisfaction from using smartphones.

Effective ways to get rid of nomophobia

The emergence of an addiction not to part with the means of communication can be prevented even at the stage of inception. It is necessary to pay attention to alarm bells, among which the following points stand out in particular:

– thoughts about the inconvenience caused by the inability to use a smartphone periodically arise every day;

– emotional experiences associated with the gadget interfere with the normal flow of sleep;

– worries about the phone do not allow you to fully enjoy real communication;

– Anxiety leads to health problems.

If you managed to track such reactions, you need to seek the advice of a psychologist who will help prevent the further development of the phobia. When time is lost and the problem gets worse, you need to force yourself to gradually do without a gadget when doing important things. It is advisable to involve relatives to help so that they can control the process of weaning from the means of communication, gently guiding in the right direction.

What is “neophobia”?

Posted on August 13, 2022  in Uncategorized

Despite the fact that a modern person has many opportunities to gain new experience in those areas that are of greatest interest to him, he often experiences fear, which may indicate neophobia. This phenomenon is observed in both women and men of all ages, regardless of social status. In order to feel the fullness of life, approaching unknown, but desirable events, one should understand the causes of pathological fear and overcome it.

Key characteristics of neophobia that have a negative impact

Neophobia refers to the fear of everything new, which is expressed in the excessive fear of change, previously unknown situations, strangers. In a mild form, such a problem does not cause severe discomfort and you can even get along with it, but in a severe case, neophobia greatly impairs the quality of life. At the same time, the fear of coming face to face with something new can have completely different manifestations, but a person will definitely need to think about the presence of such a problem if he:

– Prefer to stay in a toxic relationship or experience an unhappy marriage;

– Continues to go to work that does not bring proper emotional satisfaction;

– Is limited to friendship with specific people, flatly refusing to get involved in the search for new acquaintances;

– Desires to stick to a certain set of interests, rejecting other unexplored things in life;

– Follows a list of places visited and tends to return there again, avoiding visiting new territories.

The complete rejection of opportunities that can bring significant benefits, improving the quality of life, is a characteristic sign of neophobia. At the same time, a person with such a psychological problem always shows irritation, taking a defensive position when other people make a proposal to revise stable beliefs.

Varieties of neophobia and its causes

Both in a moderate form and in a severe stage, fear of a new life experience can be presented in different forms. The most common types of problems are situations in which a person inevitably misses out on excellent chances to improve their standard of living.

1. In the case of ideophobia , there is ardent resistance to fresh ideas that carry the possibility of improving the future.

2. With technophobia, there is a dislike for all kinds of elements of advanced technologies.

3. Epistemophobia is an exaggerated fear of unknown information.

4. Food phobia, often found in children, is expressed in the categorical refusal of food that has not been tried before.

5. During futurophobia , there is a strong anxiety about a vague future.

6. Ergasiophobia implies an abnormal avoidance of finding a job.

7. Anthropophobia is a pathological fear of making acquaintances, expanding the circle of friends.

Often in the modern world there is a fear of advanced vaccinations, vaccines. Hostility to youth cultures is also considered one of the subspecies of neophobia. The triggers leading to the development of a problem that can develop into a real psychological illness are factors such as:

– anxiety about the unknown;

– fear of defeat;

– self-condemnation;

panic in front of society’s assessments;

– fear of death.

Instead of a happy anticipation of changes that can improve life, a person becomes immobilized by a stream of negative experiences.

Symptoms and troubleshooting

Neophobia is usually classified as an anxiety disorder, which is why the patient may experience a whole bunch of symptoms that indicate the presence of a psychological problem. Often signs of malfunctions in the nervous system are:

– hot flashes, sudden chills;

– difficulty breathing;

– numbness of the limbs, tingling in the body;

– the presence of ringing in the ears;

– feeling of hopelessness;

– inability to concentrate;

– severe mood swings.

It is quite possible to overcome the problem that prevents you from living a full life if you focus on planning your own future and take responsibility for your subsequent actions. Staying conscious and not having false expectations will be helpful guides along the way to moving towards the goal. In the event that it is difficult to implement a plan to get rid of neophobia on your own, you can seek help from a psychologist who will definitely point you in the right direction by developing an effective plan from a professional point of view. Such steps are guaranteed to help everyone move forward without unnecessary worries and rash actions, achieving positive results.

Dysphoria – what is it?

Posted on August 1, 2022  in Uncategorized

When a person of any age and gender has a deterioration in mood and the situation does not improve for several days or even weeks, this condition may indicate a susceptibility to dysphoria. Such a phenomenon, which is one of the forms of a painfully low mood, may be accompanied by a number of characteristics that can negatively affect one’s own well-being and the quality of communication with others. Therefore, you should be aware of the causes and be aware of how to properly eliminate such a specific ailment.

Features of dysphoria and its causes

Dysphoria is considered to be a disorder of the affective-emotional sphere in the chronic stage, which is accompanied by a gloomy, gloomy and melancholy-evil mood. A prolonged dysphoric state is characterized by irritability, against which aggression may occur. All this leads to tangible difficulties in interpersonal relationships and often negatively affects the well-being in general. However, this could take several weeks.

A rather unpleasant dysphoric disorder can affect both individuals suffering from mental illness and healthy people. Such an affective disorder is often a companion of other diseases and often manifests itself in epilepsy. Initially, episodic outbreaks of the disease begin and end abruptly, but as the disorder worsens, dysphoria proceeds slowly, elements of psychotic phenomena are added. Dysphoric states can manifest themselves by demonstrating open hostility towards other people.

At the same time, dysphoria does not have a clear explanation for the occurrence. Sometimes the appearance of a disorder is associated with the progression of functional diseases in the brain. Also, the disease can occur as a symptomatic manifestation in case of such problems as:

– problems with falling asleep ;

– the presence of rheumatism;

Often the disease manifests itself against the background of stress. Having some similarities with a depressive state, dysphoria differs in that it quickly arises and passes without developing into a protracted period.

Types of dysphoria and its symptoms

When a person is young, manifestations of dysphoria may be the presence of irritability, pickiness. However, as they grow older, manifestations are added that are characteristic of a mild depressive state. In this case, several degrees of severity of the disease are distinguished. A mild degree is characterized by the appearance of grouchiness in a person, excessive irony, criticism and a tendency to conflict. The difficult stage is expressed by such characteristics as attacks of rage, unreasonable anger.

The disease is divided into several types, in connection with which such dysphoria is distinguished as:

– gender type;

– premenstrual conditioning;

– associated with epilepsy;

– postcoital nature.

Due to the different causes of occurrence, the features of the treatment of the problem that has arisen will depend on the severity of the course of the disease. However, it is mandatory to be observed by a psychologist, and sometimes even by a psychiatrist, who will competently guide the patient along the right path of recovery. Often, it may be necessary to additionally study breathing techniques for proper self-control at the time of the onset of a dysphoric crisis. In the most severe degree, a qualified doctor can write out a list of medications, which are always selected strictly on an individual basis.

Isotretinoin: description, instructions, price

Posted on July 31, 2022  in Uncategorized

Isotretinoin INN (capsules, rectal suppositories)

International name: Isotretinoin

Dosage form: capsules, rectal suppositories

Pharmachologic effect:

The biologically active form of vitamin A can be synthesized in the body. Isotretinoin does not directly bind to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR or RXR), as well as their subclasses (alpha, beta and gamma receptors). It quickly turns into tretinoin (trans-retinoic acid) and other substances-ligands of nuclear retinoic acid receptors and disrupts the expression of a gene that causes changes in protein synthesis (either induction or inhibition, depending on the state of the tissue). Reduces the number and production of sebaceous glands, resulting in a decrease in the content of Propionibacterium acnes (isotretinoin itself does not have an antibacterial effect). It has anti-inflammatory, keratolytic and antiseborrheic effects, inhibits the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, stimulates regeneration processes.


When taken orally, it is rapidly and fairly completely absorbed; ingestion with food increases absorption. After oral administration at a dose of 80 mg TCmax of isotretinoin – 3 hours, 4-oxo-isotretinoin – 6-20 hours; Cmax of isotretinoin – 256 ng / ml (98-535 ng / ml), 4-oxo-isotretinoin – 87-399 ng / ml. Communication with plasma proteins (mainly with albumin) – 99.9%. After oral administration at a dose of 40 mg 2 times a day, Css of isotretinoin is 160 + 19 ng / ml, 4-oxo-isotretinoin 6 hours after taking the same dose exceeds that of isotretinoin. Isotretinoin is found in many tissues of the body as early as 15 minutes after oral administration, reaches a maximum concentration after 1 hour and decreases to trace concentrations after 24 hours; in trace amounts found in the liver, uterus, ovaries, adrenal glands and lacrimal glands 7 days after application. Metabolized in the liver and intestinal wall with the formation of metabolites – 4-oxoisoretinoin (basic), tretinoin and 4-oxo-tretinoin. T1 / 2 of isotretinoin – 10-20 hours, labeled with radioisotopes of isotretinoin after oral administration at a dose of 80 mg – 90 days, 4-oxoisoretinoin – 25 hours (17-50 hours). It is excreted by the kidneys (65%) and with bile or feces (83%).


Acne vulgaris of severe course (including with the formation of abscesses, hemorrhagic, confluent, prone to scarring and pigmentation disorders), resistant to conventional methods of therapy. Rosacea (severe course); folliculitis caused by gram-negative microorganisms; purulent hidradenitis (auxiliary treatment). Violation of keratinization (including ichthyosis, follicular keratosis, palmar-plantar keratoderma, red hairy pityriasis).


Hypersensitivity, pregnancy established and planned (possibly teratogenic and embryotoxic effects); lactation period; hypervitaminosis A. For rectal use – diseases of the rectum. C with caution. Conditions causing hypertriglyceridemia (including a history of familial hypertriglyceridemia, alcoholism, obesity, diabetes mellitus – isotretinoin increases plasma triglyceride concentrations, lowers HDL and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease), liver and / or kidney failure, chronic pancreatitis, liver and / or kidney failure, CHF, diabetes mellitus and predisposition to its development.

Dosing regimen:

Inside, during meals. With acne vulgaris – at a daily dose of 0.5 mg / kg in one or more doses for 2-4 weeks; then the dose is increased to 1 mg/kg and treatment is continued for another 12-20 weeks; the maximum daily dose is 2 mg/kg. Dose adjustment is carried out depending on the sensitivity to the drug and / or the severity of side effects. A noticeable therapeutic effect is usually observed after 1-2 months of treatment, sometimes it may take 4-5 months to achieve clinical remission. If the number of rashes has decreased by 70% or more in 15-20 weeks, treatment is stopped. The general course dose in most cases does not exceed 100-150 mg/kg. If a persistent or recurrent course of the disease is confirmed, a break of at least 8 weeks should be taken before re-treatment (depending on individual sensitivity, up to 16-20 weeks). In the event of an exacerbation of the disease at the beginning of treatment, you should switch to lower doses of the drug – 0.5 mg / kg (or lower) for 2 weeks. With folliculitis caused by gram-negative microorganisms, rosacea, purulent hydradenitis – at a daily dose of 0.5-1 mg / kg for 4 months. In violation of keratinization – up to 4 mg / kg / day (depending on the disease and severity of the course), the duration of treatment is up to 4 months. After achieving clinical remission, the lowest possible dose should be used. Rectally, 0.5-1 mg / kg 1 time per day, at night. The course of treatment is 8-12 weeks. Intervals between repeated courses – 1-2 months.

Side effects:

On the part of the skin: itching, photosensitivity, peeling of the skin of the palms and soles, thinning of the hair; rarely – cheilitis, skin infections, skin rash. From the senses: xerophthalmia, burning in the eyes, conjunctival hyperemia, difficulty wearing contact lenses; rarely – cataract; with prolonged use in high doses – a violation of the clarity of visual perception, a violation of twilight vision, optic neuritis. From the musculoskeletal system: arthralgia; with prolonged use in high doses – hyperostosis. From the nervous system: headache, excessive fatigue; rarely – depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts, pseudotumor of the brain (violation of the clarity of visual perception, headache, intractable nausea and vomiting). From the digestive system: dyspepsia, dryness of the oral mucosa, bleeding from the gums, inflammation of the gums; rarely – hepatitis, colitis, regional ileitis. Laboratory indicators: increase in the concentration of TG, cholesterol, decrease in plasma HDL. Local reactions: when the suppository mass flows out – a local irritating effect (keep the “lying” position for 30 minutes after the suppository is inserted). Teratogenic and embryotoxic effects: congenital deformities – hydro- and microcephaly, underdevelopment of the cranial nerves, microphthalmia, malformations of the CCC, parathyroid glands, skeletal disorders – underdevelopment of the digital phalanges, skull, cervical vertebrae, femur, ankles, bones of the forearm, facial skulls, cleft palate, low location of the auricles, underdevelopment of the auricles, underdevelopment or complete absence of the external auditory canal, hernia of the brain and spinal cord, bone fusion, fusion of the fingers and toes, impaired development of the thymus gland; fetal death in the perinatal period, premature birth, miscarriage), premature closure of the epiphyseal growth zones; in an animal experiment – pheochromocytoma. Other: epistaxis, dryness of the nasal mucosa.

Special instructions:

During treatment, liver function, lipid content in blood serum (on an empty stomach) should be monitored. It should not be prescribed for mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Patients with diabetes are advised to conduct more frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels. Patients wearing contact lenses, in case of side effects from the eyes, should use glasses. During the period of treatment and within 30 days after its completion, it is necessary to completely exclude blood sampling from potential donors to completely exclude the possibility of this blood getting into pregnant patients (high risk of developing teratogenic and embryotoxic effects). Women of reproductive age should use reliable contraceptive drugs 4 weeks before, during and for 1 month after the end of treatment. If pregnancy occurs, it should be terminated for medical reasons. It is necessary to avoid increased insolation, incl. UV therapy. In the event of colitis, visual disturbances and symptoms of a pseudotumor of the brain, treatment is stopped. If a brain pseudotumor is suspected, a neurological examination is performed. During the period of treatment, care must be taken when driving vehicles and engaging in other potentially hazardous activities that require an increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions (when taking the first dose).


Antibiotics of the tetracycline series, GCS reduce the effectiveness. Simultaneous use with drugs that increase photosensitivity (including sulfonamides, tetracyclines, thiazide diuretics) increases the risk of sunburn. Simultaneous use with other retinoids (including acitretin, tretinoin, retinol, tazarotene, adapalene) increases the risk of hypervitaminosis A. Tetracyclines (including minocycline) increase the risk of increased intracranial pressure (simultaneous use with isotretinoin is not recommended) .

Hebephrenic form of schizophrenia

Posted on July 26, 2022  in Uncategorized

Hebephrenic form of schizophrenia is the most malignant, occurs at an early age in adolescents or in adolescence.

Typical symptoms of the manifestation of the disease: ridiculous foolish behavior and excitement, accompanied by inadequate emotional actions. Patients laugh loudly, grimace, somersault, sing and laugh. In dealing with people, they engage in absurd reasoning on any occasion, depicting intricate bows, squats and poses. They can speak in a whisper, in a bass voice, in a high voice, while their statements are ridiculous, the tone of voice is from calm to defiant. Sometimes you can observe an empty euphoria, inadequate crying, and with an emotional-volitional disorder, dementia.

The disease often begins to develop with the appearance of increased anger, irritability. Speech loses its consistency, often there is cynical abuse in communication. Behavior includes purposeful activity combined with negativism and stubbornness. Often there are patients with delusional ideas, accompanied by hallucinations.

The prognosis for hebephrenic schizophrenia has an unfavorable formation of personality defects. Social behavior is characterized by conflict and the inability to maintain interpersonal communication in the team and family. The development of the disease leads to a drop in activity, passivity and indifference. The disease occurs mainly in adolescence, adolescence, and in the future has negative consequences, as a rule, patients after the onset of the disease very quickly become disabled .

Depression in alcoholism

Posted on July 20, 2022  in Uncategorized

A fairly common occurrence among people who drink alcohol is a depressive state. Depression in alcoholism is an extremely impartial condition.

Why, after drinking a large amount of alcohol, does a person become more depressed, despite the fact that most people are convinced that drinking alcohol is one of the ways to relax and relieve emotional stress?

From the point of view of science, any alcohol-containing drinks are strong provocateurs of mental illness. They cause a state of euphoria, which, however, does not last long. After a certain time, the depressive state progresses. There is a direct relationship between alcoholism and disorders that are depressive in nature: a depressive state also contributes to the aggravation of alcohol dependence, just as long-term use of alcohol contributes to anxiety, melancholic and manic states.

The consequences of alcohol depression include:

– The appearance of thoughts of suicide. Suicide attempts are also not uncommon;
– Possible accidents, injuries caused by negligence; – Committing acts that pose a danger to society; – The transition of alcoholism to a chronic form; – Personal degradation of a person; – Alcoholic encephalopathy; – Epileptic psychosis occurs caused by alcohol consumption.

Varieties of alcoholic depression

Conventionally, there are two types of alcoholic depression:

1. Disorder after excessive alcohol consumption, which is of a short-term nature;
2. Severe depression after a long binge.

Treatment for alcoholic depression

The biggest difficulty in conducting and selecting a treatment regimen is that people in general do not understand that depression is a consequence of alcohol use, and not its cause. In this situation, treatment of alcohol dependence is necessary. Without medical assistance , it is not possible to remove the depressive state caused by alcohol addiction.

In modern medicine, the treatment of alcoholic depression involves a personal approach to each patient. The complex of treatment itself consists of:

– Reception of special medicines;
– Carrying out psychotherapeutic sessions; – Carrying out physiotherapeutic procedures.

If you need anonymous treatment for alcoholic depression, please contact our clinic. It is advisable not to delay contacting specialists, because delay can lead to extremely negative consequences.

Treatment options for schizophrenia: psychosocial and biological

Posted on July 14, 2022  in Uncategorized

Schizophrenia is a disease that results in disturbances in thought processes and provokes the “destruction” of emotions as such. It is impossible to completely get rid of schizophrenia (but history knows exceptions). But to achieve sustainable remission rates is quite realistic. In addition, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment allow a person with schizophrenia to return to the former indicators of activity, both social and emotional. One of the progressive methods is the treatment of schizophrenia with neuroleptics.

Stages of treatment for schizophrenia

Treatment of this disease is carried out in three main stages:

– Stopping . This stage involves the fight against delirium, catatonia, hallucinations and hebephrenia. The main goal of such treatment is to minimize psychosis.
– Stabilizing . It is a kind of continuation of the above phase of treatment. The main tasks are to consolidate the results that were obtained above.
– Maintenance therapy for schizophrenia. The main task is to maintain the psyche in a normal state and to delay psychosis as much as possible.

Treatment options for schizophrenia

All methods of treating the disease (including sluggish schizophrenia) can be divided into two main types: biological and psychosocial.

Treatment of schizophrenia, calling a psychiatrist in Moscow with a psychosocial method will not give you an instant result, but it will help to fix the positive effects of biological treatment. This prolongs the remission and the person gets the opportunity to be a full-fledged member of society. In addition, another positive aspect of the application of this method is the ability to reduce the number of drugs used in drug treatment. A person becomes able to control himself and his behavior, state.

Drug treatment is also used. They have certain effects on the brain. This method of treatment is the most effective, as it helps to prevent violations of the will, emotions and memory. With medication, it is possible to stop the process of personality destruction.

Schizophrenia therapy and antipsychotics in schizophrenia can stop the process of personality deformation. The latter option is used for productive schizophrenia, which can lead to hallucinations, impaired speech, memory and will. These drugs are used not only for psychosis, but also as prophylactic agents.