Patients with schizophrenia and depression have various structural changes in the brain. In schizophrenia, after the first episode of psychosis, the volume of gray matter in some areas of the brain changes after 2-3 years.
With depression, there is a decrease in the amount of gray matter in the middle temporal gyrus, left medial ventral prefrontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal gyrus, left lingual gyrus of the brain.
The pathology of the superior temporal gyrus leads to impaired perception of sensory information. This leads to a mood disorders of t mild to moderate in severity. Also, disturbances in the perception of sensory signals are associated with the development of psychotic syndromes, as well as emotional rejection, dullness, hallucinations.
The frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex is responsible for executive control. The pathology of this zone leads to a decrease in cognitive capabilities – attention, cognition, and behavioral disorders. The decrease in the amount of gray matter in patients with schizophrenia reflects the progression of the disease during the first 2 years after the first psychosis, and the decrease in the amount of white matter does not reflect the pathological changes in schizophrenia.