Get out of depression yourself

Posted on March 28, 2019  in Uncategorized

People react differently to the cruel blows of fate. Having survived a traumatic event, some are able to maintain an optimistic attitude towards life, while others are often depressed. The most effective way to get out of this depressed state is to contact a psychotherapist. But if professional help is not available, try to get out of depression yourself.

Causes of Depression – Irrational Ideas

Each person is individual. Some people react very emotionally to even the most ordinary events of their lives. To others, it seems, the notion of “depression” is completely unfamiliar; they are able to maintain emotional stability where, in the opinion of others, life ends, losing any meaning.Psychologists have established that the susceptibility of a person to depression is largely determined by the type of nervous system and the characteristics of education.

It is believed that women are more susceptible to the development of depression than men.

It is noticed that those who are prone to depression have common features of thinking. One of them is the tendency to form irrational beliefs. We are talking about not quite realistic ideas that a person considers the only true and correctly reflecting reality and life in general. Sometimes irrational beliefs are realized by man, but more often he does not realize that such ideas dominate him throughout his life.

The first step to getting out of depression is to become aware of your irrational beliefs.

A woman who finds herself in a strip of depression will have to make some efforts to realize the erroneous ideas and replace them with more reasonable ones. Such a process can take several weeks or even months. But if this inner work is carried out successfully, you will be able to radically change your whole life.

How to get out of depression: working with irrational beliefs

Most of the irrational ideas associated with the assessment of his personality or relationships with other people. People who are prone to depressive reactions may, for example, take the view that they should not be angry with others and show their irritation in people. This belief is usually formed in childhood through the influence of strict parents or other significant people.

There is only one step from such an idea until a depressed state arises.

To get out of depression, in this case, you need to take for granted the fact that the manifestation of your true feelings is reasonable and even contributes to the development of relationships.

For some women, one of the irrational beliefs, often anticipating depression, is that you cannot talk about your desires. Those who express their desires out loud, they unconsciously refer to the egoists, transferring this opinion to themselves. Try to remember how often you have heard from your parents and educators that the wishes of other people are more important than yours. Perhaps this is why you have lost the true sense of your own worth.

The described belief often strongly influences how a woman builds relationships with her partner. The difficulty here lies in the fact that the diminution of its role in the relationship day by day forms a steady state of resentment, turning into a pronounced depression. Get out of depression yourself   in this case, work on improving self-esteem and developing self-esteem will help.

These are just some of the ideas that tend to separate those who have a tendency to be depressed.

Remember that external events that trigger the mechanism of the formation of the oppressed state can be very different: the illness of a loved one, rupture of friendships, betrayal of a husband or divorce.

But the psychological basis of the depression following such events, as a rule, are precisely irrational beliefs. Even a simple awareness of them will help you get out of depression on your own.

Effective self-help ways out of depression

It is noticed that those who have inadequately lowered self-esteem, more easily go into a depressed state and more slowly get out of depression. That is why psychologists recommend working to increase self-confidence. Your task is to relax, to feel the value of your personality. It always improves mood and relieves the symptoms of depression.

Start getting out of depression with your thoughts in order. The best way is to start a personal diary. After each day, write events into it, no matter how insignificant they may seem to you. Reflect in the records of what caught your attention, what made you experience strong emotions.

Share your diary impressions of the books you have read and the movies you have watched. At the same time try to focus on pleasant experiences.

Daily make a list of upcoming cases. As the activities from this list cross out. This will give you the opportunity to regularly track your achievements. At the same time, one should not show excessive severity. It is important to feel that your life is filled with a variety of events and actions that you can successfully cope with.

Physical activity is very effective in self-control of depression. Morning jogging or fitness classes contribute to the development of so-called “hormones of happiness” – endorphins, which help relieve the symptoms of a depressed state. In addition, in sports, you will constantly improve their self-esteem.

And finally, the most general recommendation. Virtually any kind of creativity helps to get out of stress and depression. This may be cooking, composing compositions from indoor plants and flowers, handicrafts, musical exercises, writing poems and much more. In the process of engaging in creativity, you are distracted from unpleasant experiences, use your emotions and imagination. A little creativity every day – and there will be no trace of a depressed state.

Natural selection is to blame for the spread of schizophrenia

Posted on March 25, 2019  in Uncategorized

Genes responsible for the development of schizophrenia, have some unknown advantage, which allowed them to gain a foothold and spread in the course of evolution, according to the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Schizophrenia is inherited
Canadian scientists from the University of Simon Fraser (Simon Fraser University) investigated 76 DNA sites associated with the development of schizophrenia. At the same time, human genes were compared with corresponding genes of monkeys (chimpanzees and macaques), as well as mice, rats, cows and dogs.

It turned out that 28 of the 76 genes studied were very persistent and passed down from generation to generation. In the process of transferring genes, they underwent changes much less frequently than DNA segments taken as controls.

High resistance of schizophrenia genes in the process of evolution is confirmed by existing data. This mental illness, capable of being passed down from generation to generation, is diagnosed in about 1% of the world’s population.

The head of research, Bernard Crespi (Bernard Crespi), explained that the fixation and distribution of a gene in populations occurs when it encodes a trait that is useful for one organism or another. This can happen in the case of genes associated with the development of diseases. In particular, it is known that a gene mutation that promotes the development of cystic fibrosis protects a person from cholera, and people suffering from sickle cell anemia are resistant to malaria. The “genes of schizophrenia” can also give their carriers a certain evolutionary advantage, the researchers suggested.

Scientists still do not know what kind of advantage these genes give. Some psychiatrists believe that people with schizophrenia are characterized by a rich imagination and developed creative abilities. Perhaps these characteristics help their carriers to adapt to different life situations and it is easier to find a pair.

The researchers themselves point out that from the point of view of genetics, the relationship between schizophrenia and creativity does not look very convincing.

The search for notorious advantages is hampered by the fact that different genes are responsible for the development of schizophrenia in different nations. Only four of the 28 persistent DNA fragments found by scientists were distributed on more than one continent, the researchers said.

How to determine schizophrenia from pictures

Posted on March 20, 2019  in Uncategorized

One of the most well-known signs of schizophrenia is the splitting of consciousness, which is subjectively experienced as a plurality of one’s own “me.” However, the feeling of a split personality can also occur in the mentally healthy, especially in a situation of making a difficult decision. Therefore, often concerned people are interested in how to recognize schizophrenia. Only a psychiatrist can figure this out with a high degree of accuracy, but there are some simple methods that can be used for initial diagnostics. These include, for example, the analysis of drawings.
How to find schizophrenia
Figures are the product of our figurative thinking and are largely related to the activity of the subconscious. Their plots, features of images, forms and lines can tell a lot about the character and mental state of a person. Scientists have proven this long ago, and now many so-called projective techniques, or drawing tests, are used in the study of the psyche.
How to determine the picture of schizophrenia
Psychologists and psychiatrists also studied the graphic activity of people with mental illness, including schizophrenia. Studies have revealed a number of features characteristic of schizophrenic figures:
randomness, lack of plot and complete images of even individual objects. The face of a person without a nose, and the nose separately aside, a house, one of the walls of which is depicted in another corner of the sheet;
a combination of images (eyes, palms, sun, monsters), signs (letters, numbers), symbols (for example, infinity signs, spirals, male and female symbols), geometric shapes, etc. in one picture;
very complex and confusing symbolism of pictures, understandable only by the patient himself;
images of the eyes and palms are often found;
strange, unusual colors and their combinations;
drawing is almost always accompanied by speech activity, which at this time is also incoherent and chaotic;
the more pronounced the disease, the harder it is for a person to draw and easier to speak.
It may seem that the drawings of people suffering from schizophrenia resemble pictures of some areas of avant-garde art: cubism, symbolism, abstract art, and psychedelic painting. This is not an accident. Many artists, creating their works, deliberately provoked a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenic nonsense. Both drugs and special meditation techniques were used for this.
Answering the question of how to define schizophrenia is not easy, as it is a complex mental disorder, and it has various symptoms. The causes of schizophrenia are not completely clear. Therefore, if there is a suspicion of the presence of this disease in you or your relatives, it is better to contact a specialist.

Night symptoms in COPD

Posted on March 16, 2019  in Uncategorized

The main symptoms of COPD are chronic and progressive dyspnea, cough and sputum production.

A number of studies have shown that most patients with COPD experience symptoms of the disease throughout the day. At the same time, violations associated with COPD cause the greatest discomfort in the morning, but also bother patients at night.

More than half of patients with COPD experience symptoms day and night. At the same time, patients with any combination of night / morning symptoms are more prone to anxiety and depression. It is also worth noting that the quality of sleep in patients with nocturnal COPD symptoms is significantly worse than in patients without nocturnal symptoms.

Patients with COPD require round-the-clock monitoring of symptoms, as most patients with COPD experience symptoms during the entire 24 hours.

Your health care provider may prescribe medications for you to reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations. The doctor can combine the drugs of different groups with each other to enhance the therapeutic effect. If you are taking inhaled drugs, it is very important to follow the rules for using the inhaler. If you have questions about inhalation techniques, be sure to ask them to your doctor.

You can do a lot at home to feel better:

Avoid irritating the lungs – smoke, cold or dry air.

Use an air conditioner or air purifier.

Take rest breaks during the day.

Exercise regularly, especially to train your respiratory muscles, to stay in good physical shape and slow down the progression of the disease.

Eat well. It is very important to preserve your strength and well-being. If you are losing weight, ask your doctor about the need to change the diet.

Be healthy!

Depression depends on memory and pleasure

Posted on March 12, 2019  in Uncategorized

Depending on the strength of the connection between different nerve centers, the brain may tend to either be dependent on something or depression.

Our sense of pleasure depends on the reward system, or the reinforcement system, which is a complex of nerve centers. The reinforcement system does not just give us a feeling of pleasure, it connects it with this or that action or event, why it is called so — our actions are reinforced by something pleasant in the form of a reward. Therefore, it is clear that the reinforcement system plays a huge role in motivation, in training, in managing attention – all these things are somehow tied to pleasure. Roughly speaking, just as a dog is motivated to give a paw in order to get sugar, so a person is motivated to go to work to get praise and a cash reward.

Although, of course, a person is not so simple. First, our motivations can be quite complex, purely internal, depending on our personal values. Secondly, the reinforcement system does not exist by itself, other nerve centers that control the higher nervous activity constantly interact with it – they set the framework for the reinforcement system, plan its work, or simply limit it in desires. It happens, however, that the neural system of checks and balances fails, and then we are dealing with dependence — on food, on alcohol, on opiates, on purchases, etc. The other extreme is depression with anhedonia, or the inability to experience joy either from what; it is obvious that in this case, a person will completely extinct all motivation for any activity.

Since the nerve centers that make up the reinforcement system work together and must constantly exchange information with each other, it can be assumed that neuropsychiatric problems, such as addictions and depression, are at least partially related to the problems of information transfer between the centers of this system. It is known that dependencies are indeed accompanied by a too strong connection between the hippocampus (the memory center, which is included in the reward system) and the adjacent nucleus (which is often called simply the pleasure center).

Researchers at the University of Maryland decided to directly test how the gain and weakening of the connection between the hippocampus and the adjacent nucleus affect behavior. The neurons that form this connection in mice were modified by optogenetic methods so that they respond to light. With the help of optical fiber implanted in the brain, activated communication channel between the two brain centers; and this communication channel was getting stronger. As a result, as stated in an article in Nature, mice had the memory of a false reward. The animals were motivated to take certain actions, and a day later they returned to the place where they were stimulated by neurons – although they received no real reward. It is worth emphasizing that the researchers acted not on the hippocampus, not on the pleasure center, but on the information “bus” between them.

Then the authors of the work acted differently: in mice, other neurons were modified, which suppress the activity of nerve cells between the hippocampus and the pleasure center. Now, when using neurons-suppressors with the help of light, they weakened this communication channel — and before that, communicative mice stopped coming to where they communicated with their comrades. For social rodents, this behavior is an anomaly that is a sign of depression; because with depression, there really is no motivation to communicate with others.

Moreover, when initially depressed mice were taken for an experiment (and animals can be simulated signs of depression, although this is not a real, “human” depression), it turned out that the connection between the hippocampus memory center and their pleasure center is weak – and what is important, direct stimulation of neurons does not enhance it. However, if the animals were given antidepressants, the information channel returned to normal, and they could create a false memory of pleasant things, as described above.

The depressed brain has other features; For example, last year we wrote that because of certain features in the structure of serotonin neurons during depression, serotonin ceases to flow into the nerve centers. On the other hand, the more we know about the mechanism of depression, the sooner we will find some effective remedy for it. Since the connection between the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens plays a role both in the formation of dependencies and in depressions, it is possible that both dependencies and depression can be overcome by acting on the neurons connecting these two nerve centers.

“Owls” and schizophrenia

Posted on March 8, 2019  in Uncategorized

The “owls” and “larks” added DNA

People with different chronotypes, that is, “owls” and “larks”, go to bed at different times. And this is not only a matter of habit – “owl” and “larks” largely depends on genes. The other day, Nature Communications published a large-scale study in which features of chronotypes were compared with genetic data. As a result, we managed to find as many as 351 sections in our DNA, which to some extent affects the chronotype; whereas before it was believed that there are only 24 such sites in our genome. If there are certain sequences of nucleotides in these areas, a person is inclined to wake up earlier.

We are talking about DNA segments, and not specific genes, that is, there may be more than one gene, and even with regulatory sequences. Among the genes that have fallen into these areas of the genome are those that control biological clocks, those that affect glucose metabolism, those that affect the response to nicotine and caffeine, and many more. Some of them work in the brain, some kind of – in the retina, some – in other places.

Along the way, the authors of the work noticed that the “soviet” a person is, the higher his genetic predisposition to depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, and the worse he feels. This is due precisely to the chronotype, but not to insomnia and not to the quality of sleep (although it can be assumed that if a person does not just go to bed late and get up late, but also sleep poorly, then the likelihood of neuropsychiatric disorders will only increase)

At the same time, no connection was found between the “genes of the chronotype” and the likelihood of diabetes or obesity. However, it is necessary to clarify here that it is usually said about diabetes and obesity in connection with sleep, when a person randomly disrupts his daily rhythm, when his body simply cannot understand how to live – “lark” or “owl”. That is, probably, it is necessary to distinguish the chronotype, which went by genes, and the one that we impose on ourselves.

Medicines in the treatment of mental health disorders

Posted on March 4, 2019  in Uncategorized

One of the ways to treat mental health disorders is drug therapy. For some disorders, drug therapy is necessarily necessary; in the case of others, one of the possible alternatives. For example, diagnosed depression is recommended to be treated with a combination of drug and psychotherapy.

Drug therapy makes possible a meaningful life for sufferers with severe enough disorders. Every year, more than 700,000 Finns, at least from time to time, use some medicine designed to treat mental health disorders. Despite the prevalence of the use of psychotropic drugs, their use still sometimes causes shame and prejudice. In the worst cases, this leads to the fact that a person in need of medication refuses to use them, which makes them feel worse.

Psychotropic drugs should be treated in the same way as drugs for somatic diseases. With the help of drugs, it is possible to alleviate, prevent or cure the various symptoms of intolerable sensual hallucinations. Medication, quality of symptoms, and individual factors influence medication choices.

Sometimes, finding the right medicine can take a long time. Nevertheless, psychotropic drugs are well researched, so doctors can determine which group of drugs will benefit a particular patient. The effectiveness of psychotropic drugs is based on the fact that they affect the central nervous system and the substances through which electrical impulses are transmitted from nerve cells (= neurotransmitters or neurotransmitters).

Taking psychotropic drugs always ends as instructed by the doctor.

In the process of completing the medication, various symptoms may occur, such as excessive sweating, headache and dizziness. These so-called final symptoms may occur, for example, at the end of antidepressants, despite the fact that antidepressants do not cause physical dependence. The use of sedatives, in contrast, leads to addiction, but this risk can be reduced in various ways. Read more on drug addiction.

So, the final symptoms only rarely indicate the development of drug dependence, on the contrary, they arise as a natural reaction of the body that has become accustomed to using drugs to reducing the level of drugs. Because of the final symptoms, medication is usually stopped gradually, i.e. dose is reduced from time to time.

If the final symptoms do not disappear in time, for example, in cases of depression, you should consult a doctor. Sometimes it may happen that medication is stopped too early or depression has resumed. The doctor can make a prediction when the final symptoms should stop.

Do not forget to take your medication!

The drug does not have the desired effect if the instructions for use are violated.

Schizophrenia. Effective treatment with guaranteed results

What is dangerous schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a time bomb in your body. This severe mental illness leads to a breakdown of thinking processes and disturbances in your emotional reactions. You begin to pursue hallucinations, delusions, there are disorders of perception of reality, speech disorders. The progression of the disease is accompanied by social isolation, leading to disability and disability. Against this background severe depression develops, thoughts of suicide arise.

The main danger of the disease is the appearance of persistent mental disorders and the destruction of social ties. Losing the usual social circle and lifestyle, you exacerbate the severity of your condition, which can lead to suicide attempts and causing irreversible harm to the body.

What will happen if not treated?

In most cases, schizophrenia leads to serious complications that pose a real threat to your health and life. Among such complications:

Insomnia

Hallucinations

Disorderly thinking

Confused speech

Flattening, inadequacy and impoverishment of emotions

Identity violation

Personality changes

Attempted suicide

According to medical research, the rate of development of these pathologies and complications has been growing rapidly in recent years.

If you do not take urgent measures or use ineffective treatment, powerful pathological processes will inevitably start in your body, which will lead to aggravation of the symptoms of the disease and irreversible personality changes. This will entail not only medical complications, but also social problems.

Main cause of schizophrenia

Absolutely all the processes in your body are controlled by the brain. The cells of your brain receive information from all organs and systems, analyze this information, produce the desired reaction and transmit the corresponding orders to various organs of your body through the nerve cells.

Schizophrenia (like any other mental disorder) arises from a combination of various factors. These factors lead to malfunction of certain parts of the brain and impaired neural connections. In other words, the brain ceases to give the “correct” orders for the precise work of your nervous system, which leads to schizophrenia, and then to more serious consequences, which were noted above.

How to conquer schizophrenia as quickly as possible?

The answer is obvious: it is necessary to restore the precise work of the brain centers responsible for the regulation of your nervous system. This problem is solved by the innovative device Neurodoctor.

The device is based on the method of pulse therapy. This is one of the most progressive and highly effective methods of treatment known to modern world medicine. Pulse therapy affects the control centers of the brain, restores the work of your nervous system, eliminating mental abnormalities and pathologies. At the same time, powerful mechanisms for restoring the nervous system are launched, and the work of damaged organs and structures is normalized. The disease quickly recedes. The risk of recurring disease is reduced to zero.

What yesterday seemed fantastic and unattainable today is becoming a reality accessible to each of us.

What is the result?

You have decreased mental arousal. Normal sleep. Streamlined thinking. Emotional responsiveness will increase. The state of anxiety and fear will disappear or decrease significantly. Increase concentration. Hallucinations and delirium will disappear or the duration and intensity of their attacks will be reduced. Reduced risk of relapse. Efficiency of the taken medicines will increase.

Powerful and effective treatment with the device Neuroditor will quickly eliminate the clinical manifestations of the disease, localize the nidus of the onset of pathologies, and reduce the dose of drugs. This will allow you to live a full life and forget about your illness forever. You will restore your lost ability to work and socialize and return to a lifestyle that led to the first signs of illness.

How can a character contribute to the development of depression?

There are general prerequisites underlying depressions, both related to a stressful situation and developing for no apparent reason. In the science of the “soul of man,” particularities of thinking and typical personality traits are known, contributing to the emergence of depressive ideas and their fixation in thinking.

Scientists have noticed that the majority of patients with depression before the illness had marked personal anxiety. Such people are sensitive in their relations with others, they subtly notice non-acceptance, rejection, are jealous of the attention of their loved ones. Since childhood, they may be timid and worry more in meaningful situations than their peers (for example, the answer at the blackboard at school, during exams). The experience of failures or grievances such individuals long stored in the memory.

With such a particular way of thinking, it is called ruminative, – thoughts about an unpleasant event spin in the head and the person longer than normal is fixed on what has been experienced.

The big fixation on the negative leads such people to the fact that they are trying to protect themselves and, as a rule, plan their day ahead. Where they go, what and how they will say or do – everything is repeatedly scrolled in the head and fixed in the “correct” order. Often they pre-write the to-do list and try to follow it clearly.

Avoiding all sorts of dangers contributes to the formation of a limited view of yourself and people (thinking “as if that didn’t work out”) hinders healthy learning, when a person is normal, getting into certain life situations, gets experience and knowledge, allows herself to develop further. Of course, this increases the risk of developing depression, when such a person finds himself in a situation to which he is not fundamentally ready.

Hence another characteristic feature – a special rigidity of thinking, which causes difficulties of unexpected switching from one business to another, because the latter is not included in the “plans”, is unfamiliar and alarming. This, incidentally, is associated with irritability over trifles, well known to the close circle of people with a similar character. Hot temper, grumbling is a direct continuation of anxiety.

With the ruminative thinking, the thoughts of an unpleasant event are steadily spinning in the head and the person lasts longer than normal, is fixed on the experience.

Another typical personality trait that increases the risk of developing depression is perfectionism. Of course, the desire to ensure that everything is done as well as possible, demanding of oneself in everyday life (cleanliness and order at home) and / or in deeds (careful fulfillment of one’s duties) is welcomed in our society and is considered a good trait of a family or exemplary worker. Scientists distinguish two forms of perfectionism: constructive and destructive. The difference between them is that in the second case people cannot accept the so-called “intermediate result”, they try so hard that they torture themselves and work hard. In addition to this, there is another feature – the crowding out (forgetting) of one’s own successes, dissatisfaction even with a perfectly accomplished deed. Such an attitude towards oneself, towards one’s work already in depressive states is transformed into a feeling of guilt, a reproach to one’s address, a feeling of hopelessness.

In the history of psychiatric science according to the classification of P. B. Gannushnkina has an idea of ​​two types of character, combining in one form or another the features listed above: psychasthenics and constitutional depressive personalities. The latter are also called obsessive-compulsive (from Lat. Obsessio – “obsession with an idea” or obsessive thoughts, and Lat. Compulsio – “coercion” or obsessive actions), as well as dependent or avoiding individuals).

Knowing about your character, its pros and cons helps people to work on themselves in a more creative way: broaden their horizons, plunge into unfamiliar situations and deal with their fears of the unexpected, solve problems on their own, give themselves an “objective” positive assessment and enjoy success. Such constructive thinking can help form a psychiatrist or psychotherapist during a psychotherapy session.

It is important to remember that even if depression has already developed or it has occurred in the past, it is never too late to pay attention to yourself, your character, and particular thinking. Psychotherapeutic work in remission (recovery period after a depressive episode), along with anti-depressive supportive treatment, is competent prevention of depression in the future.

Knowledge of your character

Knowing about your character, its pros and cons helps people to work more creatively on themselves.

Depression: causes and symptoms

Depression is a mood disorder, that is, a complex of mental disorders associated primarily with the emotional sphere. This disorder is characterized by various emotional disorders in which people experience anguish, anxiety, guilt, anhedonia, that is, the loss of the ability to experience pleasure, or apathy – a state where a person does not experience either negative or positive emotions. In addition, depression is characterized by certain disorders in the field of thinking. For example, people with depression may find it difficult to concentrate, to carry out targeted mental activity, which is associated with concentration. In a depressed state, people have difficulty making decisions. They have dark thoughts about themselves, about the world around them, about people.

Depression has such physiological manifestations as sleep disturbances, intestinal functions, sexual needs. In patients with depression, the general energy tone is disturbed, they feel tired. With somatisation depression, the person experiences discomfort in the body. If you look at such a person, then in his behavior one can observe passivity, avoid contact with people, refusal from entertainment. Depression is often accompanied by increasing abuse of alcohol or other psychoactive substances that are used to improve mood.

Depression studies

Manifestations of melancholia have been described in Antiquity. Hippocrates introduced the terms “mania” and “depression.” At the end of the 19th century, the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, the founder of the school of Crepelin, first described manic-depressive psychosis. Later they began to distinguish unipolar and bipolar forms of depressive disorder. In modern concepts, manic-depressive psychosis is called bipolar disorder. In addition, we can talk about the so-called neurotic depression, which can be exposed to people who do not suffer from mental illness, but have psychological difficulties that predispose to depression. Manic-depressive psychosis was described long ago, and now this concept is considered obsolete. In the modern world, the diagnosis of a depressive episode is more common, which can have varying degrees of severity.

Causes of Depression

Current views on depression are described in terms of biopsychosocial models. The causes of depression are never unambiguous. The biological factors of depression are confirmed by genetic studies, but the contribution of genetic factors is generally low. Neurochemical studies show that people prone to depression have impaired metabolism of neurotransmitters that contribute to the interaction between nerve cells and the passage of electrical impulses.

The psychological causes of depression can be summarized in two main directions. First of all, these are violations of self-esteem and self-esteem — introjective variants of depression, in which a person has a certain idea of ​​his own “I” as unworthy of love and respect. In connection with this, various variants of compensatory behavior are formed. For example, this may be expressed in such a personality trait as perfectionism. In this situation, a person can accept himself only when he is perfect, other people evaluate him ideally, and the products of his activity have no flaws. If the life and activity of a person is aimed at confirming a good attitude towards oneself, exhaustion depression occurs. That is, if all activity is aimed at achieving results, a person loses psychic energy, which is formed through experiencing positive emotions: joy, pleasure, interest. Such mechanisms of depression are more common in men.

Another direction in understanding the psychological causes of depression is problems in intimate relationships. When a person needs another person to feel alive and able to adapt to reality, he is inclined to merge with another person and to minimize the distance. In such cases, the person experiences himself through another person. This tendency to depend on relationships is fraught with depression. In such a relationship, the partner often feels strangled. He does not leave space, leaning too close to him. Such relationships often fall apart, and the person who needs this merger feels it as a loss of himself. People describe this experience as follows: “It’s as if I don’t exist if the other one leaves me.” Such dependence often leads to depression, because man does not have the power of the ego, which allows him to live autonomously.

In addition, depression has social mechanisms. There is a certain cultural influence that affects the severity of depression in a particular culture. In northern cultures, the incidence of depression is higher than in southern and eastern ones. Here comes to the fore the cult of success, rationality, well-being, which is implanted through the media and parenting. In the process of growing up, people introject, that is, take in, into their worldview, the idea that they need to have a certain list of achievements in order to be good. The mechanisms of social comparison are activated, and when a person compares himself with other people, and the comparison is not in his favor, it is fraught with depression. In addition, people pay a lot of attention to the achievements in relation to their own physicality: what should be the body, to be socially acceptable, and what should be done with this body to be accepted in society.

Manifestations of depression

Tosca can be felt physically, in the form of squeezing in some parts of the body. Most often, people talk about squeezing in the chest. There is the concept of vital angst when a person feels that something is bad, but does not understand what is concrete. He does not survive the loss, does not suffer from separation from a loved one, but experiences a state of life longing. Patients with this symptom often say that they are simply ill, complain of depressed mood.

Anxiety is a feeling of internal tension, an expectation of something negative. Anxiety often accompanies depression, but can manifest itself. For depression, anxiety can occur in addition to depression and depressed mood.

Guilt feelings and a general tendency to self-accusation are characteristic of people with low self-esteem. There is a connection between low self-esteem and depression. Guilt feelings, as a rule, are associated with personalization, that is, thinking error, in which a person often takes bad events on his own account, and considers good events as the result of external causes.

Anhedonia is a condition in which a person cannot experience the pleasure of something that has pleased him before. For example, a patient with depression says that he would have given half his life for a fishing trip, but now he does not even want to think about it. This is a consequence of anhedonia, a distance from everything that used to be touched.

People most often experience apathy through their own passivity. Apathy is the most severe manifestation of depression, because this condition is difficult to treat with psychological methods. When a person is apathetic, he does not touch anything emotionally, either in a bad or in a good way. In a state of apathy, a person wants to lie in bed, he has no emotions, nothing encourages him, no motive. In this case, the person has due. For example, he says to himself that he must get up, make breakfast, feed the children, but this is experienced as pressure, an obligation, and not as a goal or desire. Most often, people understand that they have apathy when they want nothing but to stay in bed.

Sleep and appetite. Emotions are psychological phenomena that have a large physiological, somatic component. They have a cognitive component at the level of experience: before we feel something, we interpret what is happening. When the emotional state is unfavorable, the functions of the autonomic nervous system are disturbed, which controls the internal organs. A person experiences a variety of physiological symptoms: appetite disturbances in one direction or another, sleep disturbances. Internal stresses make sleep superficial or impede entering sleep.

Behavior. At the level of behavior, depression manifests itself in passivity, avoidance of contacts, refusal from entertainment, gradual alcoholization or substance abuse.

In addition, emotions affect thinking. On the other hand, thinking affects emotions. In some people, depression develops due to biochemical mechanisms that do not depend on his personality. For example, a person from childhood knows that his mood is worse in the morning, and that after lunch, his mood improves. When a person feels a severe emotional state, he has an unconscious need to substantiate this state cognitively. A person has a need to think about the bad. Thinking can also affect emotions. The mechanisms of cognitive therapy of depression are based on the fact that with the help of a psychotherapist a person works on these thinking errors that are inherent in depressive thinking. He becomes aware of these errors at the cognitive level.

Forms of depression

One form of depression is bipolar disorder. It manifests itself as a mood disorder that proceeds with a phase flow. Phases are periods of time that last for weeks or months. Moreover, in bipolar disorder, the phase of depression replaces the phase of mania. Mania is characterized by a positive mood. In this state, a person is full of plans, sleeps little, does not analyze obstacles, commits rash acts.

In bipolar disorder, significant coefficients of the genetic contribution are observed. In neurotic depression, the genetic contribution is lower, and psychosocial factors play a more significant role. With such a disorder, there is no phase of mania, disturbed thinking and reality testing, delusions or hallucinations. Treatment of neurotic depression is more dependent on psychotherapeutic procedures.

Another form of depression is unipolar depression, that is, a depressive episode. It can have three degrees of severity: mild, moderate, and severe. This condition lasts at least two weeks. If the depressive episode is repeated, then the diagnosis changes from a depressive episode to a recurrent depressive disorder, that is, to a periodically pop-up depression. A person can suffer depression once in a lifetime, and can suffer from it twice a year.

In addition, there are such forms of mood disorders as cyclothymia and dysthymia. These are personality characteristics rather than illness. Dysthymia is a property of a person to remain in a gloomy mood, to have a pessimistic picture of the world, but at the same time to function all his life, never addressing psychiatrists. The intensity of depressive symptoms in dysthymic low, but lasts for years.

Cyclothymia is dysthymia with the presence of phases in which the dysthymic phase gives way to a good mood phase and so on. The difference from bipolar disorder is that it is a characteristic associated with a person’s worldview and personality. You can talk about cyclothymic or dysthymic personality. Such depression takes a lifetime if the person does not specifically work on it. And this does not radically restrict his ability to live. But when there is a real clinical depression, a person is limited in life activity. Often he cannot work due to the fact that he cannot concentrate, get out of bed, he has no mental tone, but there is a strong longing.

Treatment of depression

There are several psychotherapeutic areas for the treatment of depression. In particular, psychoanalysts work with depression. They are more focused on the analysis of early losses and injuries. One of the most effective is cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression, the author of which is Aaron Beck. Beck’s concept is called depression cognitive therapy. The basic theoretical premise is that a person has negative basic beliefs, ideas about himself, the world, and his future, which keep him inside the depressive pit.

A person follows a compensatory strategy of behavior in that he should like everyone and should not be mistaken. These behavioral strategies lead to exhaustion or frustration. In cognitive therapy, there are a number of techniques that are designed to correct these basic beliefs. First, more superficial beliefs are corrected. A person learns to recognize these thinking errors. When he tests this in his life, basic beliefs also begin to be corrected, too. He begins to accept himself as he is, ceases to depend on the opinions and assessments of others, allows himself to make mistakes and to treat them adequately. Beliefs are corrected, and the life situation begins to be interpreted through the prism of other beliefs and a worldview that is more adaptive.

In addition, depression is treated with medication. It is known that half of the inhabitants of the United States take antidepressants. In Russia, this practice is also common, but far fewer people turn to psychiatrists. The history of Soviet psychiatry in the Soviet period is rather repressive. There are prejudices in people’s minds.

Depression should be treated comprehensively. If a person treats depression with antidepressants, the mechanisms of psychological coping with emotions do not mature. As a result, sooner or later he attacks the same rake.

Frequency of depression

According to statistics, depression occurs more often in women than in men. This is due to the fact that women as a whole have a more delicate nervous organization and there are cyclical hormonal changes. The most vulnerable age range is after 45 years. In old age, depression is associated with anxiety. There are predictions that in the 21st century depression will take the second place after cardiovascular diseases for reasons of disability. In general, in Western countries, this is indeed a social disaster.

The effect of depression on physical health

There are two mechanisms of the effect of depression on physical health. First, there is somatization, in which it is not about physical health, but about the symptoms that a person experiences as a violation of physical health. Often, when a person is depressed, there are so-called psychalgia, that is, pain in different parts of the body. In this case, medical research does not lead to any results. But a person suffers systematically from the body: he may have a bad headache or, for example, a knee; besides, there are stomach or heart pains.

Another mechanism is the effect of depression on health, on changes in body tissues that are associated with depression. By itself, depression does not cause damage to internal organs. But a person who is depressed often leads an unhealthy lifestyle. Having a dark look at the state of things in life, he may not go to the doctors or, conversely, turn too often. The physiological, biochemical components of depression are not fully understood. As for psychology, there are also many white spots, in particular in the description of family and cultural mechanisms of depression. Scientists are trying to understand why, for example, in the southern countries patients with depression are less than in the north, but at the same time in India more than all over the world.