Experts of all countries agree in one opinion: recently, depression has become almost the most common ailment that affects millions of people around the world (up to 20% in developed countries). Some even compare it with cardiovascular disease. Health services are seriously concerned about such statistics and seek to promote the widespread promotion of signs and methods of dealing with depression. Depression is considered a disease of the whole organism.
The main signs of depression are distinguished in various manifestations. Emotional manifestations are characterized by longing, despair, depression, depression, irritability, anxiety, lack of interest in the surrounding reality, decreased self-confidence, guilt. Physiologically, depression manifests itself in the form of changes in appetite, sleep disturbances, decreased sexual needs, pain, fatigue. A person who is depressed behaves passively, avoids contact in every possible way, and abuses alcohol or psychoactive substances. Mental manifestations are expressed in the form of difficulty in making decisions, distraction, gloomy thoughts about one’s life and the world as a whole, pessimism, sometimes in the form of thoughts of suicide. The specialist diagnoses and selects methods to combat depression in the presence of such symptoms for two weeks or more.
In most cases, depression is confused with manifestations of selfishness, bad temper, or pessimism. However, depression is not a sign of a bad mood, but a serious illness that needs to be treated. The sooner the fight against depression begins, the easier it is to cure it before it worsens and leads to suicidal thoughts. Nevertheless, many are afraid to contact a specialist, believing that they will be registered, forbidden to drive vehicles, condemn others, and also prescribe psychotropic drugs for treatment. About 80% of patients with depression seek medical advice from general practitioners and only 5% receive the correct diagnosis, and only a few are prescribed the right treatment.
Modern medicine analyzes depression from several perspectives: psychological, biological and social. The psychological factors of depression are called negative thinking, increased conflict in the family and environment, stressful events in life, as well as social isolation from those who can improve the mood of interlocutors. From the point of view of biology, the emergence of depression is facilitated by violations of neurochemical processes. The social factors of the formation of depression include a high pace of life, high competitiveness, difficult economic conditions, and uncertainty about the future.
A comprehensive approach is currently being used to combat depression, including biological therapy and psychotherapy. Drug treatment is used for all forms of depression and implies complete trust in the specialist and the drugs prescribed by him, regular medication and a detailed story about the state of life. Among the main medicines used by a patient with depression, antidepressants are considered. Modern medicine offers a wide variety of drugs, including those that have been used for more than half a century. The benefits of new generation antidepressants are better tolerance and safety in case of overdose. It should be remembered that the effect of such funds does not appear immediately, but gradually. The main difference between antidepressants and tranquilizers is the lack of addiction and withdrawal.
Psychotherapy is a serious addition to drug treatment, which implies an active role of the patient in the fight against depression. It is aimed at developing the patient’s skills of emotional self-regulation. There are three approaches to the treatment of psychotherapy: psychodynamic psychotherapy, behavioral psychotherapy, cognitive psychotherapy. Psychodynamic psychotherapy believes that the basis of depression is internal unconscious conflicts (for example, to be independent and require the support of loved ones). So the main goal is awareness of the conflict and the search for balance. Behavioral psychotherapy deals with the patient’s current problems and relieves symptoms such as passivity, monotony of lifestyle, isolation. Cognitive psychotherapy is a complex of the listed approaches, combining their advantages. They also resort to family counseling and group psychotherapy to combat depression. supporting loved ones is very important for people with depression.